Internet DRAFT - draft-ietf-sipping-call-flows

draft-ietf-sipping-call-flows





Internet Engineering Task Force                          Alan Johnston 
Internet Draft                                                WorldCom 
Document: draft-ietf-sipping-call-flows-01.txt           Steve Donovan 
Category: Informational                                  Robert Sparks 
July 2002                                             Chris Cunningham 
Expires: December 2002                                     Dean Willis 
                                                    Jonathan Rosenberg 
                                                           dynamicsoft 
                                                         Kevin Summers 
                                                                 Sonus 
                                                   Henning Schulzrinne 
                                                   Columbia University 
                                                                       
 
 
             Session Initiation Protocol Call Flow Examples 
 
    
   Status of this Memo 
    
   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with 
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. 
    
   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering 
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other 
   groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. 
   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months 
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any 
   time. It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference 
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." 
   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at 
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt 
   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at 
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. 
    
    
   Abstract 
    
   This informational document gives examples of Session Initiation 
   Protocol (SIP) call flows.  Elements in these call flows include SIP 
   User Agents and Clients, SIP Proxy and Redirect Servers, and Gateways 
   to the PSTN (Public Switch Telephone Network).  Scenarios include SIP 
   Registration, SIP to SIP calling, SIP to Gateway, Gateway to SIP, and 
   Gateway to Gateway via SIP.  Call flow diagrams and message details 
   are shown.  PSTN telephony protocols are illustrated using ISDN 
   (Integrated Services Digital Network), ANSI ISUP (ISDN User Part), 
   and FGB (Feature Group B) circuit associated signaling.  PSTN calls 
   are illustrated using global telephone numbers from the PSTN and 
   private extensions served on by a PBX (Private Branch Exchange).  
   Example SIP messages used for testing during SIP interoperability 
   test events include SIP "torture test" messages, and messages with 
   invalid parameters, methods, and tags. 
    
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Table of Contents 
    
   1      Overview...................................................4 
   1.1    General Assumptions........................................4 
   1.2    Legend for Message Flows...................................5 
   1.3    SIP Protocol Assumptions...................................6 
   2      SIP Registration...........................................7 
   2.1    Success Scenarios..........................................7 
    2.1.1 SIP Client New Registration................................7 
    2.1.2 User updates contact list..................................9 
    2.1.3 User Requests Current Contact List........................11 
    2.1.4 User Cancels Registration.................................12 
   2.2    Failure Scenarios.........................................13 
    2.2.1 Unsuccessful SIP registration.............................13 
   3      SIP to SIP Dialing........................................15 
   3.1    Success Scenarios.........................................15 
    3.1.1 Successful Simple SIP to SIP..............................16 
    3.1.2 Successful SIP to SIP through two proxies.................19 
    3.1.3 Successful SIP to SIP with Multi Proxy Authentication.....29 
    3.1.4 Successful SIP to SIP with Proxy failure..................39 
    3.1.5 Successful SIP to SIP through SIP ALG ....................47 
    3.1.6 Successful SIP to SIP via Redirect and Proxy SDP in ACK...55 
    3.1.7 Successful SIP to SIP with re-INVITE......................61 
   3.2    Failure Scenarios.........................................67 
    3.2.1 Unsuccessful SIP to SIP no answer.........................67 
    3.2.2 Unsuccessful SIP to SIP busy..............................74 
    3.2.3 Unsuccessful SIP to SIP no response.......................79 
    3.2.4 Unsuccessful SIP to SIP Temporarily Unavailable...........84 
   4      SIP to Gateway Dialing....................................90 
   4.1    Success Scenarios.........................................90 
    4.1.1 Successful SIP to ISUP PSTN call..........................91 
    4.1.2 Successful SIP to ISDN PBX call...........................99 
    4.1.3 Successful SIP to ISUP PSTN call with overflow...........107 
   4.2    Failure Scenarios........................................115 
    4.2.1 Unsuccessful SIP to PSTN call: Treatment from PSTN.......116 
    4.2.2 Unsuccessful SIP to PSTN: REL w/Cause from PSTN..........123 
    4.2.3 Unsuccessful SIP to PSTN: ANM Timeout....................127 
   5      Gateway to SIP Dialing...................................133 
   5.1    Success Scenarios........................................133 
    5.1.1 Successful PSTN to SIP call..............................134 
    5.1.2 Successful PSTN to SIP call, Fast Answer.................140 
    5.1.3 Successful PBX to SIP call...............................145 
   5.2    Failure Scenarios........................................151 
    5.2.1 Unsuccessful PSTN to SIP REL, SIP error mapped to REL....151 
    5.2.2 Unsuccessful PSTN to SIP REL, SIP busy mapped to REL.....153 
    5.2.3 Unsuccessful PSTN->SIP, SIP error interworking to tones..157 
    5.2.4 Unsuccessful PSTN->SIP, ACM timeout......................161 
    5.2.5 Unsuccessful PSTN->SIP, ACM timeout, stateless Proxy.....165 
    5.2.6 Unsuccessful PSTN->SIP, Call Abandonment.................168 
   6      Gateway to Gateway Dialing via SIP Network...............174 
   6.1    Success Scenarios........................................174 
    6.1.1 Successful ISUP PSTN to ISUP PSTN call...................175 
 
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    6.1.2 Successful FGB PBX to ISDN PBX call with overflow........182 
   7      SIP Test Messages........................................191 
   7.1    INVITE Parser Torture Test Message.......................191 
   7.2    INVITE with Proxy-Require and Require....................192 
   7.3    INVITE with Unknown Schemes in URIs and URLs.............192 
   7.4    REGISTER with Y2038 Test.................................193 
   7.5    INVITE with inconsistent Accept and message body.........193 
   7.6    INVITE with non-SDP message body.........................194 
   7.7    Unknown Method Message...................................194 
   7.8    Unknown Method with CSeq Error...........................195 
   7.9    REGISTER with Unknown Authorization Scheme...............195 
   7.10   Multiple SIP Request in a Single Message.................196 
   7.11   INVITE missing Required Headers..........................197 
   7.12   INVITE with Duplicate Required Headers...................197 
   7.13   INVITE with Illegal Expires Header.......................198 
   7.14   200 OK Response with Broadcast Via Header................198 
   7.15   INVITE with Invalid Via and Contact Headers..............199 
   7.16   INVITE with Incorrect Content-Length Header..............200 
   7.17   INVITE with Invalid Value for Content-Length.............200 
   7.18   INVITE with Garbage after Message Body...................201 
   7.19   INVITE with Error in Display Name in To Header...........201 
   7.20   INVITE with long tokens, Call-ID, and SIP URIs...........202 
   7.21   INVITE with Illegal Enclosing of Request-URI in "<>".....202 
   7.22   INVITE with Illegal LWS within Elements of Request-URI...203 
   7.23   INVITE with Illegal >1 SP between elements Request-URI...204 
   7.24   INVITE with a Legal SIP URI With Escaped Characters......204 
   7.25   INVITE with the Illegal Escaped Headers Request-URI......205 
   7.26   INVITE with Unknown Scheme in Request-URI................206 
   7.27   OPTIONS with no LWS between display name and "<".........206 
   7.28   OPTIONS with Extra WS between display name and "<".......206 
   7.29   INVITE with an Illegal Date Format.......................207 
   7.30   INVITE with Passed Expires Time..........................207 
   7.31   INVITE with Max-Forwards Set to Zero.....................208 
   7.32   REGISTER with Escaped Header in a Legal Contact URI......209 
   7.33   REGISTER with Escaped Header in an Illegal Contact URI...209 
   7.34   INVITE with Long Values in Headers.......................210 
   7.35   OPTIONS with Multiple Headers............................211 
   7.36   INVITE with Large Number of SDP Attributes and Long URI..211 
   7.37   REGISTER with Contact Parameter..........................212 
   7.38   REGISTER with a URI Parameter............................213 
   7.39   INVITE with Unquoted Display Name with Tokens............213 
   7.40   INVITE with Unquoted Display Name with Non-Token Chars...213 
   7.41   INVITE with Unknown (Higher) Protocol Version Start Line.214 
   8      Security Considerations .................................214 
   9      IANA Considerations .....................................215 
   10     Acknowledgements.........................................215 
   11     References...............................................215 
 




 
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1  Overview 
    
   The call flows shown in this document were developed in the design of 
   a carrier-class SIP IP Telephony network.  They represent an example 
   minimum set of functionality for SIP to be used in IP Telephony 
   applications.  The message examples were developed during the SIP 
   interoperability tests known as SIPit. 
    
   It is the hope of the authors that this document will be useful for 
   SIP implementors, designers, and protocol researchers alike and will 
   help further the goal of a standard SIP implementation for IP 
   Telephony.  It is envisioned that as changes to the standard and 
   additional RFCs are added that this document will reflect those 
   changes and represent the current state of a standard interoperable 
   SIP IP Telephony implementation. 
    
   Note that this document is informational, and is NOT NORMATIVE on any 
   aspect of SIP or SIP/PSTN interworking. 
    
   These call flows are based on the current version 2.0 of SIP in 
   [RFC3261] with SDP usage described in [RFC3264].   
    
   Various PSTN signaling protocols are illustrated in this document: 
   ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), ANSI ISUP (ISDN User 
   Part) and FGB (Feature Group B) circuit associated signaling.  They 
   were chosen to illustrate the nature of SIP/PSTN interworking - they 
   are not a complete or even representative set.  Also, some details 
   and parameters of these PSTN protocols have been omitted.  For full 
   information about SIP to ISUP mapping, refer to [SIP-ISUP]. 
    
   Finally, some example messages are given along with expected 
   behavior of clients and servers. 
    
1.1 General Assumptions 
    
   A number of architecture, network, and protocol assumptions underly 
   the call flows in this document. Note that these assumptions are not 
   requirements.  They are outlined in this section so that they may be 
   taken into consideration and to aid in the understanding of the call 
   flow examples. 
    
   The authentication of SIP User Agents in these example call flows is 
   performed using SIP Digest as defined in [RFC3261] and [RFC2617]. 
    
   Throughout this document the call flows show a network where the 
   proxy servers authenticate users on behalf of gateways.  Gateways may 
   also authenticate users directly. Both of these are reasonable usages 
   of SIP. If gateways do not authenticate directly they would be to 
   refuse requests from entities other than trusted proxy servers with 
   which they have effective channel security (for example [RFC2246] or 
   [RFC2401])." 
 
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   The SIP Proxy Server has access to a Location Service and other 
   databases.  Information present in the Request-URI and the context 
   (From header) is sufficient to determine to which proxy or gateway 
   the message should be routed.  In most cases, a primary and secondary 
   route will be determined in case of Proxy or Gateway failure 
   downstream. 
    
   Some Proxy Servers in these call flows insert Record-Route headers 
   into requests to ensure that they are in the signaling path for 
   future message exchanges.   
    
   Gateways provide tones (ringing, busy, etc) and announcements to the 
   PSTN side based on SIP response messages, or pass along audio in-band 
   tones (ringing, busy tone, etc.) in an early media stream to the SIP 
   side. 
 
   The interactions between the Proxy and Gateway can be summarized as 
   follows: 
     
     . The SIP Proxy Server performs digit analysis and lookup and 
       locates the correct gateway. 
    
     . The SIP Proxy Server performs gateway location based on primary 
       and secondary routing. 
 
   Telephone numbers are usually represented as SIP URIs.  Note that an 
   alternative is the use of the tel URI [RFC2806].   
    
   These flows show UDP for transport.  Other transport schemes could 
   also be used. 
 
1.2 Legend for Message Flows 
    
   Dashed lines (---) represent signaling messages that are mandatory to 
   the call scenario. These messages can be SIP or PSTN 
   signaling.  The arrow indicates the direction of message flow. 
    
   Double dashed lines (===) represent media paths between network 
   elements. 
    
   Messages with parentheses around their name represent optional 
   messages. 
    
   Messages are identified in the Figures as F1, F2, etc.  This 
   references the message details in the list that follows the Figure. 
   Comments in the message details are shown in the following form: 
    
    /* Comments. */ 
    
1.3 SIP Protocol Assumptions 
    
 
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   This document is informational only and is NOT NORMATIVE in any 
   sense. 
    
   For simplicity in reading and editing the document, there are a 
   number of differences between some of the examples and actual SIP 
   messages.  For example, the SIP Digest responses are not actual MD5 
   encodings.  Call-IDs are often repeated, and CSeq counts often begin 
   at 1.  Header fields are usually shown in the same order.  Usually 
   only the minimum required header field set is shown, others that 
   would normally be present such as Accept, Supported, Allow, etc are 
   not shown. 
    
   Actors: 
    
   Element       Display Name   URI                  IP Address 
   -------       ------------   ---                  ---------- 
    
   User Agent    BigGuy         UserA@atlanta.com    192.168.100.101   
   User Agent    LittleGuy      UserB@biloxi.com     192.168.200.201 
   User Agent                   UserB@chicago.com    192.168.200.100 
   Proxy Server                 ss1.atlanta.com      192.168.255.111 
   Proxy/Registrar              ss2.biloxi.com       192.168.156.222 
   Proxy Server                 ss3.chicago.com      192.168.182.333 
   ALG                          alg1.atlanta.com     192.168.255.128 
   User Agent (Gateway)         gw1.atlanta.com      192.168.255.201 
   User Agent (Gateway)         gw2.atlanta.com      192.168.255.202 
   User Agent (Gateway)         gw3.atlanta.com      192.168.255.203 
   User Agent (Gateway)         ngw1.atlanta.com     192.168.255.101 
   User Agent (Gateway)         ngw2.atlanta.com     192.168.255.102 
    






















 
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2  SIP Registration 
    
2.1 Success Scenarios 
    
   Registration binds a particular device Contact URI with a SIP user 
   AOR (Address of Record).  
    
2.1.1 SIP Client New Registration 
    
    User B                        SIP Server 
     |                               | 
     |          REGISTER F1          | 
     |------------------------------>| 
     |      401 Unauthorized F2      | 
     |<------------------------------| 
     |          REGISTER F3          | 
     |------------------------------>| 
     |            200 OK F4          | 
     |<------------------------------| 
     |                               | 
    
   User B sends a SIP REGISTER request to the SIP server.  The request 
   includes the user's contact list.  The SIP server provides a 
   challenge to User B.  User B enters her/his valid user ID and 
   password.  User B's SIP client encrypts the user information 
   according to the challenge issued by the SIP server and 
   sends the response to the SIP server.  The SIP server validates the 
   user's credentials.  It registers the user in its contact database 
   and returns a response (200 OK) to User B's SIP client.  The response 
   includes the user's current contact list in Contact headers.  The 
   format of the authentication shown is SIP digest.  It is assumed that 
   User B has not previously registered with this Server. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 REGISTER B -> SIP Server 
    
   REGISTER sip:ss2.biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=a73kszlfl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@biloxi.com 
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F2 401 Unauthorized SIP Server -> User B 
    
 
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   SIP/2.0 401 Unauthorized 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=a73kszlfl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=1410948204 
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@biloxi.com 
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER 
   WWW-Authenticate: Digest realm="atlanta.com", qop="auth", 
    nonce="ea9c8e88df84f1cec4341ae6cbe5a359", 
    opaque="", stale=FALSE, algorithm=MD5 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F3 REGISTER B -> SIP Server 
    
   REGISTER sip:ss2.biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=ja743ks76zlflH 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@biloxi.com 
   CSeq: 2 REGISTER 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Authorization: Digest username="UserB", realm="atlanta.com" 
    nonce="ea9c8e88df84f1cec4341ae6cbe5a359", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:ss2.biloxi.com", response="dfe56131d1958046689d83306477ecc" 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F4 200 OK SIP Server -> B 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=ja743ks76zlflH 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=37GkEhwl6 
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@biloxi.com 
   CSeq: 2 REGISTER 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201>;expires=3600 
   Content-Length: 0












 
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   2.1.2 User updates contact list 
    
    
   User B                        SIP Server 
     |                               | 
     |          REGISTER F1          | 
     |------------------------------>| 
     |            200 OK F2          | 
     |<------------------------------| 
     |                               | 
    
    
   User B wishes to update the list of addresses where the SIP server 
   will redirect or forward INVITE requests. 
    
   User B sends a SIP REGISTER request to the SIP server.  User B's 
   request includes an updated contact list.  Since the user already has 
   authenticated with the server, the user supplies authentication 
   credentials with the request and is not challenged by the server. 
   The SIP server validates the user's credentials.  It registers the 
   user in its contact database, updates the user's contact list, and 
   returns a response (200 OK) to User B's SIP client.  The response 
   includes the user's current contact list in Contact headers. 
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 REGISTER B -> SIP Server 
    
   REGISTER sip:ss2.biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=a73kszlfl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@biloxi.com 
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER 
   Contact: mailto:UserB@biloxi.com 
   Authorization: Digest username="UserB", realm="atlanta.com",  
    qop="auth", nonce="1cec4341ae6cbe5a359ea9c8e88df84f", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:ss2.biloxi.com", 
   response="71ba27c64bd01de719686aa4590d5824" 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F2 200 OK SIP Server -> B 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=a73kszlfl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=34095828jh 
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@biloxi.com 
 
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   CSeq: 1 REGISTER 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201>;expires=3600 
   Contact: <mailto:UserB@biloxi.com>;expires=4294967295 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
 















 
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2.1.3 User Requests Current Contact List 
    
    
   User B                        SIP Server 
     |                               | 
     |          REGISTER F1          | 
     |------------------------------>| 
     |            200 OK F2          | 
     |<------------------------------| 
     |                               | 
    
   User B sends a register request to the Proxy Server containing no 
   Contact headers, indicating the user wishes to query the server for 
   the user's current contact list.  Since the user already has 
   authenticated with the server, the user supplies authentication 
   credentials with the request and is not challenged by the server. The 
   SIP server validates the user's credentials.  The server returns a 
   response (200 OK) which includes the user's current registration list 
   in Contact headers. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   F1 REGISTER B -> SIP Server 
    
   REGISTER sip:ss2.biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=a73kszlfl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@biloxi.com 
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER 
   Authorization: Digest username="UserB", realm="atlanta.com", 
    nonce="df84f1cec4341ae6cbe5ap359a9c8e88", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:ss2.biloxi.com", 
   response="aa7ab4678258377c6f7d4be6087e2f60" 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F2 200 OK SIP Server -> B 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=a73kszlfl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=jqoiweu75 
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@biloxi.com 
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201>;expires=3600 
   Contact: <mailto:UserB@biloxi.com>;expires=4294967295 
   Content-Length: 0

 
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2.1.4 User Cancels Registration 
    
   User B                         SIP Server 
     |                               | 
     |          REGISTER F1          | 
     |------------------------------>| 
     |            200 OK F2          | 
     |<------------------------------| 
     |                               | 
    
   User B wishes to cancel their registration with the SIP 
   server. User B sends a SIP REGISTER request to the 
   SIP server.  The request has an expiration period of 0 and applies to 
   all existing contact locations.  Since the user already has 
   authenticated with the server, the user supplies authentication 
   credentials with the request and is not challenged by the server. 
   The SIP server validates the user's credentials.  It clears the 
   user's contact list, and returns a response (200 OK) to User B's SIP 
   client. 
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 REGISTER B -> SIP Server 
    
   REGISTER sip:ss2.biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=a73kszlfl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@biloxi.com 
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER 
   Expires: 0 
   Contact: * 
   Authorization: Digest username="UserB", realm="atlanta.com", 
    nonce="88df84f1cac4341aea9c8ee6cbe5a359", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:ss2.biloxi.com", 
   response="ff0437c51696f9a76244f0cf1dbabbea" 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F2 200 OK SIP Server -> B 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=a73kszlfl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=1418nmdsrf 
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@biloxi.com 
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER 
   Content-Length: 0 
 
 
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2.2 Failure Scenarios 
    
2.2.1 Unsuccessful SIP registration 
    
   User B                        SIP Server 
     |                               | 
     |          REGISTER F1          | 
     |------------------------------>| 
     |      401 Unauthorized F2      | 
     |<------------------------------| 
     |          REGISTER F3          | 
     |------------------------------>| 
     |      401 Unauthorized F4      | 
     |<------------------------------| 
     |                               | 
    
    
    
   User B sends a SIP REGISTER request to the SIP Server.  The SIP 
   server provides a challenge to User B.  User B enters her/his user ID 
   and password.  User B's SIP client encrypts the user information 
   according to the challenge issued by the SIP server and sends the 
   response to the SIP server.  The SIP server attempts to validate the 
   user's credentials, but they are not valid (the user's password does 
   not match the password established for the user's account).  The 
   server returns a response (401 Unauthorized) to User B's SIP client. 
    
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 REGISTER B -> SIP Server 
    
   REGISTER sip:ss2.biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=a73kszlfl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@biloxi.com 
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F2 Unauthorized SIP Server -> User B 
    
   SIP/2.0 401 Unauthorized 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=a73kszlfl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=1410948204 
 
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   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@biloxi.com 
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER 
   WWW-Authenticate: Digest realm="atlanta.com", qop="auth",  
    nonce="f1cec4341ae6ca9c8e88df84be55a359",  
    opaque="", stale=FALSE, algorithm=MD5 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F3 REGISTER B -> SIP Server 
    
   REGISTER sip:ss2.biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=JueHGuidj28dfga 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@biloxi.com 
   CSeq: 2 REGISTER 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Authorization: Digest username="UserB", realm="atlanta.com", 
    nonce="f1cec4341ae6ca9c8e88df84be55a359", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:ss2.biloxi.com", 
   response="61f8470ceb87d7ebf508220214ed438b" 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /*  The response above encodes the incorrect password */ 
    
   F4 401 Unauthorized SIP Server -> User B 
    
   SIP/2.0 401 Unauthorized 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=JueHGuidj28dfga 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=1410948204 
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@biloxi.com 
   CSeq: 2 REGISTER 
   WWW-Authenticate: Digest realm="atlanta.com", qop="auth", 
    nonce="84f1c1ae6cbe5ua9c8e88dfa3ecm3459", 
    opaque="", stale=FALSE, algorithm=MD5 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
    
    
    
    






 
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3  SIP to SIP Dialing 
    
3.1  Success Scenarios 
    
   This section details calls between two SIP User Agents (UAs): 
   User A and User B.  User A (LittleGuy sip:UserA@atlanta.com) and User 
   B (BigGuy sip:UserB@biloxi.com) are assumed to be SIP phones or SIP- 
   enabled devices.  The successful calls show the initial signaling, 
   the exchange of media information in the form of SDP payloads, the 
   establishment of the media session, then finally the termination of 
   the call. 
    
   SIP digest authentication is used by Proxy Servers to 
   authenticate the caller User A. It is assumed that User B has 
   registered with Proxy Server Proxy 2 as per Section 2.1 to be able to 
   receive the calls via the Proxy. 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
 








 
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3.1.1 Successful Simple SIP to SIP 
    
   User A                  User B 
     |                        | 
     |       INVITE F1        | 
     |----------------------->| 
     |    180 Ringing F2      | 
     |<-----------------------| 
     |                        | 
     |       200 OK F3        | 
     |<-----------------------| 
     |         ACK F4         | 
     |----------------------->| 
     |   Both Way RTP Media   | 
     |<======================>| 
     |                        | 
     |         BYE F5         | 
     |<-----------------------| 
     |       200 OK F6        | 
     |----------------------->| 
     |                        | 
    
   In this scenario, User A completes a call to User B directly. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE User A -> User B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
 
    
   F2 180 Ringing User B -> User A 
    
 
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   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=8321234356 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F3 200 OK User B -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=8321234356 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 ACK User A -> User B 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=8321234356 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* RTP streams are established between A and B */ 
    
   /* User B Hangs Up with User A. Note that the CSeq is NOT 2, since  
      User A and User B maintain their own independent CSeq counts.  
      (The INVITE was request 1 generated by User A, and the BYE is 
      request 1 generated by User B) */ 
    
   F5 BYE User B -> User A 
 
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   BYE sip:UserA@192.168.100.101 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=8321234356 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F6 200 OK User A -> User B 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=8321234356 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    











 
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3.1.2 Successful SIP to SIP through two proxies 
    
   User A          Proxy 1          Proxy 2          User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |   INVITE F1    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     407 F2     |                |                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     ACK F3     |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |   INVITE F4    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F5    |                | 
     |     100  F6    |--------------->|   INVITE F7    | 
     |<---------------|     100  F8    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |     180 F9     | 
     |                |    180 F10     |<---------------| 
     |     180 F11    |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                |     200 F12    | 
     |                |    200 F13     |<---------------| 
     |     200 F14    |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     ACK F15    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|    ACK F16     |                | 
     |                |--------------->|     ACK F17    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                Both Way RTP Media                | 
     |<================================================>| 
     |                |                |     BYE F18    | 
     |                |    BYE F19     |<---------------| 
     |     BYE F20    |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     200 F21    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|     200 F22    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|     200 F23    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |                | 
    
   In this scenario, User A completes a call to User B using two proxies 
   Proxy 1 and Proxy 2.  The initial INVITE (F1) contains a pre-loaded 
   Route header with the address of Proxy 1 (Proxy 1 is configured as a 
   default outbound proxy for User A).  The request does not contain the 
   Authorization credentials Proxy 1 requires, so a 407 Proxy 
   Authorization response is sent containing the challenge information. 
   A new INVITE (F4) is then sent containing the correct credentials and 
   the call proceeds.  The call terminates when User B disconnects by 
   initiating a BYE message. 
    
   Proxy 1 inserts a Record-Route header into the INVITE message to 
   ensure that it is present in all subsequent message exchanges.  Proxy 
   2 also inserts itself into the Record-Route header.  The ACK (F15) 
   and BYE (F18) both have a Route header. 
 
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   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 challenges User A for authentication */ 
    
   F2 407 Proxy Authorization Required Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 407 Proxy Authorization Required 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=3flal12sf 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Proxy-Authenticate: Digest realm="atlanta.com", qop="auth",  
    nonce="f84f1cec41e6cbe5aea9c8e88d359", 
    opaque="", stale=FALSE, algorithm=MD5 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F3 ACK A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=3flal12sf 
 
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   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* User A responds be re-sending the INVITE with authentication 
      credentials in it. */ 
    
   F4 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", realm="atlanta.com", 
    nonce="wf84f1ceczx41ae6cbe5aea9c8e88d359", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:UserB@biloxi.com", response="42ce3cef44b22f50c6a6071bc8" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 accepts the credentials and forwards the INVITE to Proxy 
   2.  Proxy 1 is assumed to have been authenticated by Proxy 2 using 
   IPSec.  Client for A prepares to receive data on port 49172 from the 
   network. */ 
    
   F5 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
 
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   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F6 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F7 INVITE Proxy 2 -> B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 68 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F8 100 Trying Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
 
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   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F9 180 Ringing B -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F10 180 Ringing Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F11 180 Ringing Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
 
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   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F12 200 OK B -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F13 200 OK Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
 
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   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F14 200 OK Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F15 ACK A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr>, <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F16 ACK Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
 
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   Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>  
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F17 ACK Proxy 2 -> B 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 68 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* RTP streams are established between A and B */ 
    
   /* User B Hangs Up with User A. */ 
    
   /* Again, note that the CSeq is NOT 3.  User A and User B maintain 
      their own separate CSeq counts */ 
    
   F18 BYE User B -> Proxy 2 
    
   BYE sip:UserA@192.168.100.101 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F19 BYE Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   BYE sip:UserA@192.168.100.101 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
 
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   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F20 BYE Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   BYE sip:UserA@192.168.100.101 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   Max-Forwards: 68 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F21 200 OK User A -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F22 200 OK Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
 
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   F23 200 OK Proxy 2 -> User B 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    








































 
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3.1.3 SIP to SIP with Multi Proxy Authentication 
    
     User A       Proxy 1     Proxy 2       User B 
       |            |           |             | 
       |  INVITE F1 |           |             | 
       |----------->|           |             | 
       |  407 Proxy Authorization Required F2 | 
       |<-----------|           |             | 
       |   ACK F3   |           |             | 
       |----------->|           |             | 
       |  INVITE F4 |           |             | 
       |----------->|           |             | 
       |   100 F5   |           |             | 
       |<-----------| INVITE F6 |             | 
       |            |---------->|             | 
       |            |  407 Proxy Authorization Required F7  
       |            |<----------|             | 
       |            |   ACK F8  |             | 
       |            |---------->|             | 
       |  407 Proxy Authorization Required F9 | 
       |<-----------|           |             | 
       |   ACK F10  |           |             | 
       |----------->|           |             | 
       |  INVITE F11|           |             | 
       |----------->|           |             | 
       |   100 F12  |           |             | 
       |<-----------| INVITE F13|             | 
       |            |---------->|             | 
       |            |  100 F14  |             | 
       |            |<----------|  INVITE F15 | 
       |            |           |------------>| 
       |            |           | 200 OK F16  | 
       |            | 200 OK F17|<------------| 
       | 200 OK F18 |<----------|             | 
       |<-----------|           |             | 
       |   ACK F19  |           |             | 
       |----------->|  ACK F20  |             | 
       |            |---------->|   ACK F21   | 
       |            |           |------------>| 
       |           RTP Media Path             | 
       |<====================================>| 
    
   In this scenario, User A completes a call to User B using two proxies 
   Proxy 1 and Proxy 2.  User A has valid credentials in both domains. 
   Since the initial INVITE (F1) does not contain the 
   Authorization credentials Proxy 1 requires, so a 407 Proxy 
   Authorization response is sent containing the challenge information. 
   A new INVITE (F4) is then sent containing the correct credentials and 
   the call proceeds after Proxy 2 challenges and receives valid 
   credentials.  The call terminates when User B disconnects by 
   initiating a BYE message. 
    
 
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   Proxy 1 inserts a Record-Route header into the INVITE message to 
   ensure that it is present in all subsequent message exchanges.  Proxy 
   2 also inserts itself into the Record-Route header.   
    
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 challenges User A for authentication */ 
    
   F2 407 Proxy Authorization Required Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 407 Proxy Authorization Required 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=876321 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Proxy-Authenticate: Digest realm="atlanta.com", qop="auth", 
    nonce="wf84f1cczx41ae6cbeaea9ce88d359", 
    opaque="", stale=FALSE, algorithm=MD5 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F3 ACK A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
 
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   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=876321 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* User A responds be re-sending the INVITE with authentication 
      credentials in it.  The same Call-ID is used, so the CSeq is  
      increased. */ 
    
   F4 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", realm="atlanta.com", 
    nonce="wf84f1ceczx41ae6cbe5aea9c8e88d359", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:UserB@biloxi.com", response="42ce3cef44b22f50c6a6071bc8" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 accepts the credentials and forwards the INVITE to Proxy 
   2.  Proxy 1 is assumed to have been authenticated by Proxy 2 using 
   IPSec.  Client for A prepares to receive data on port 49172 from the 
   network. */ 
    
   F5 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
 
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   CSeq: 2 INVITE  
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F6 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK230f2.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 2 challenges User A for authentication */ 
    
   F7 407 Proxy Authorization Required Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 407 Proxy Authorization Required 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK230f2.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=838209 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Proxy-Authenticate: Digest realm="biloxi.com", qop="auth", 
    nonce="c1e22c41ae6cbe5ae983a9c8e88d359", 
    opaque="", stale=FALSE, algorithm=MD5 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F8 ACK Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
 
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   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=838209 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 forwards the challenge to User A for authentication from 
   Proxy 2 */ 
    
   F9 407 Proxy Authorization Required Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 407 Proxy Authorization Required 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=838209 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Proxy-Authenticate: Digest realm="biloxi.com", qop="auth", 
    nonce="c1e22c41ae6cbe5ae983a9c8e88d359", 
    opaque="", stale=FALSE, algorithm=MD5 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F10 ACK User A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=838209 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* User A responds be re-sending the INVITE with authentication 
   credentials for Proxy 1 AND Proxy 2.  */ 
    
   F11 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", realm="atlanta.com", 
 
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    nonce="wf84f1ceczx41ae6cbe5aea9c8e88d359", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:UserB@biloxi.com", response="42ce3cef44b22f50c6a6071bc8" 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", realm="biloxi.com", 
    nonce="c1e22c41ae6cbe5ae983a9c8e88d359", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:UserB@biloxi.com", response="f44ab22f150c6a56071bce8" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 finds its credentials and authorizes User A, forwarding 
   the INVITE to Proxy.  */ 
    
    
   F12 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F13 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK230f2.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", realm="biloxi.com", 
    nonce="c1e22c41ae6cbe5ae983a9c8e88d359", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:UserB@biloxi.com", response="f44ab22f150c6a56071bce8" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
 
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   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 2 finds its credentials and authorizes User A, forwarding 
   the INVITE to User B.  */ 
    
   F14 100 Trying Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK230f2.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F15 INVITE Proxy 2 -> User B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK31972.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK230f2.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 68 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
 
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   /* User B answers the call immediately */ 
    
   F16 200 OK User B -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK31972.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK230f2.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=9103874 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F17 200 OK Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK230f2.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=9103874 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
 
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   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F18 200 OK Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=9103874 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F19 ACK User A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr>, <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=9103874 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F20 ACK Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK230f2.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=9103874 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 ACK 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
 
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   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F21 ACK Proxy 2 -> User A 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK31972.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK230f2.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 68 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=9103874 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 ACK 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    

































 
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3.1.4 Successful SIP to SIP with Proxy failure 
    
   User A          Proxy 1          Proxy 2          User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |   INVITE F1    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |   INVITE F2    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |   INVITE F3    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |   INVITE F4    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |   INVITE F5    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |   INVITE F6    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |   INVITE F7    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     INVITE F8                   |                | 
     |-------------------------------->|                | 
     |            407 F9               |                | 
     |<--------------------------------|                | 
     |             ACK F10             |                | 
     |-------------------------------->|                | 
     |           INVITE F11            |                | 
     |-------------------------------->|   INVITE F12   | 
     |             100  F13            |--------------->| 
     |<--------------------------------|                | 
     |                                 |     180 F14    | 
     |             180 F15             |<---------------| 
     |<--------------------------------|                | 
     |                                 |     200 F16    | 
     |             200 F17             |<---------------| 
     |<--------------------------------|                | 
     |             ACK F18             |                | 
     |-------------------------------->|     ACK F19    | 
     |                                 |--------------->| 
     |                Both Way RTP Media                | 
     |<================================================>| 
     |                                 |     BYE F20    | 
     |             BYE F21             |<---------------| 
     |<--------------------------------|                | 
     |             200 F22             |                | 
     |-------------------------------->|     200 F23    | 
     |                                 |--------------->| 
     |                                 |                | 
    
    
   In this scenario, User A completes a call to User B via a Proxy 
   Server. User A is configured for a primary SIP Proxy Server Proxy 1 
   and a secondary SIP Proxy Server Proxy 2 (Or is able to use DNS SRV 
   records to locate Proxy 1 and Proxy 2).  User A has valid credentials 
 
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   for both domains.  Proxy 1 is out of service and does not respond to 
   INVITEs (it is reachable, but unresponsive).  User A then completes 
   the call to User B using Proxy 2. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK465bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F2 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   Same as Message F1 
    
    
   F3 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   Same as Message F1 
    
    
   F4 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   Same as Message F1 
    
    
   F5 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   Same as Message F1 
    
    
   F6 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
 
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   Same as Message F1 
    
    
   F7 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   Same as Message F1 
    
    
   /* User A gives up on the unresponsive proxy */ 
 
    
   F8 INVITE A -> Proxy 2 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 2 challenges User A for authentication */ 
    
   F9 407 Proxy Authorization Required Proxy 2 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 407 Proxy Authorization Required 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=2421452 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Proxy-Authenticate: Digest realm="biloxi.com", qop="auth", 
    nonce="1ae6cbe5ea9c8e8df84fqnlec434a359", 
    opaque="", stale=FALSE, algorithm=MD5 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F10 ACK A -> Proxy 2 
 
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   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=2421452 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* User A responds be re-sending the INVITE with authentication 
   credentials in it.  */ 
    
   F11 INVITE A -> Proxy 2 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", realm="biloxi.com", 
    nonce="1ae6cbe5ea9c8e8df84fqnlec434a359", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:UserB@biloxi.com",  
    response="8a880c919d1a52f20a1593e228adf599" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 2 accepts the credentials and forwards the INVITE to User B. 
   Client for A prepares to receive data on port 49172 from the network. 
   */ 
    
   F12 INVITE Proxy 2 -> B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr> 
 
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   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F13 100 Trying Proxy 2 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F14 180 Ringing B -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F15 180 Ringing Proxy 2 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
 
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   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F16 200 OK B -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F17 200 OK Proxy 2 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
 
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   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F18 ACK A -> Proxy 2 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F19 ACK Proxy 2 -> B 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* RTP streams are established between A and B */ 
    
   /* User B Hangs Up with User A. */ 
    
   F20 BYE User B -> Proxy 2 
    
   BYE sip:UserA@192.168.100.101 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr> 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F21 BYE Proxy 2 -> User A 
    
   BYE sip:UserA@192.168.100.101 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
 
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    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F22 200 OK User A -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F23 200 OK Proxy 2 -> User B 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 
    ;received=192.168.200.201 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    

 
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3.1.5 Successful SIP to SIP through SIP ALG 
    
   User A            ALG           Proxy 2          User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |   INVITE F1    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F2    |                | 
     |     100  F3    |--------------->|   INVITE F4    | 
     |<---------------|     100  F5    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|      180 F6    | 
     |                |     180 F7     |<---------------| 
     |     180 F8     |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                |      200 F9    | 
     |                |    200 F10     |<---------------| 
     |     200 F11    |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                                 | 
     |     ACK F12    |                                 | 
     |--------------->|             ACK F13             | 
     |                |-------------------------------->|      
     |    RTP Media   |        Both Way RTP Media       | 
     |<==============>|<===============================>| 
     |     BYE F14    |                                 | 
     |--------------->|             BYE F15             | 
     |                |-------------------------------->|   
     |                |             200 F16             | 
     |     200 F17    |<--------------------------------| 
     |<---------------|                                 | 
     |                |                                 | 
    
   User A completes a call to User B through a ALG (Application Layer 
   Gateway) and a SIP Proxy.  The routing through the ALG is 
   accomplished using a pre-loaded Route header in the INVITE F1. Note 
   that the media stream setup is not end-to-end - the ALG terminates 
   both media streams and bridges them.  This is done by the ALG 
   modifying the SDP in the INVITE (F1) and 200 OK (F10) messages, and 
   possibly any 18x or ACK messages containing SDP. 
    
   In addition to firewall traversal, this Back-to-Back User Agent 
   (B2BUA) could be used as part of an anonymizer 
   service (in which all identifying information on User A would be 
   removed), or to perform codec media conversion, such as mu-law to A- 
   law conversion of PCM on an international call. 
    
   Also note that Proxy 2 does not Record-Route in this call flow. 
 
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE A -> SIP ALG 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
 
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   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Route: <sip:alg1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", realm="biloxi.com", 
    nonce="85b4f1cen4341ae6cbe5a3a9c8e88df9", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:UserB@biloxi.com", 
    response="b3f392f9218a328b9294076d708e6815" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Client for A prepares to receive data on port 49172 from the 
   network. */ 
    
   F2 INVITE SIP ALG -> Proxy 2 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP alg1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK739578.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:alg1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", realm="biloxi.com", 
    nonce="85b4f1cen4341ae6cbe5a3a9c8e88df9", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:UserB@biloxi.com",  
    response="b3f392f9218a328b9294076d708e6815" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 146 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.128 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 2000 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
 
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   F3 100 Trying SIP ALG -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* SIP ALG prepares to proxy data from port 192.168.255.128/2000 to 
   192.168.100.101/49172.   Proxy 2 uses a Location Service function to 
   determine where B is located. Based upon location analysis the call 
   is forwarded to User B */ 
    
   F4 INVITE Proxy 2 -> B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP alg1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK739578.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.128 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 68 
   Record-Route: <sip:alg1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 146 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.128 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 2000 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F5 100 Trying Proxy 2 -> SIP ALG 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP alg1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK739578.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.128 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
 
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    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F6 180 Ringing B -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP alg1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK739578.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.128 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:alg1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F7 180 Ringing Proxy 2 -> SIP ALG 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP alg1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK739578.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.128 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:alg1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F8 180 Ringing SIP ALG -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:alg1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
 
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   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F9 200 OK B -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP alg1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK739578.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.128 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:alg1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F10 200 OK Proxy 2 -> SIP ALG 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP alg1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK739578.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.128 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:alg1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
 
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   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F11 200 OK SIP ALG -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:alg1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.128 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 1734 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* The ALG prepares to proxy packets from 192.168.255.128/ 
      1734 to 192.168.200.201/3456 */ 
    
   F12 ACK A -> SIP ALG 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:alg1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F13 ACK SIP ALG -> B 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP alg1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK739578.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
 
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   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
 
   /* RTP streams are established between A and the ALG and 
   between the ALG and B*/ 
    
   /* User A Hangs Up with User B. */ 
    
   F14 BYE A -> SIP ALG 
    
   BYE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:alg1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F15 BYE SIP ALG -> B 
    
   BYE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP alg1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK739578.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
 
    
   F16 200 OK B -> SIP ALG 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP alg1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK739578.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.128 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
 
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   F17 200 OK SIP ALG -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    



































 
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3.1.6 Successful SIP to SIP via Redirect and Proxy with SDP in ACK 
    
   User A       Redirect Server     Proxy 3           User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |   INVITE F1    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     302 F2     |                |                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     ACK F3     |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     INVITE F4                   |                | 
     |-------------------------------->|    INVITE F5   | 
     |             100  F6             |--------------->| 
     |<--------------------------------|      180 F7    | 
     |             180 F8              |<---------------| 
     |<--------------------------------|                | 
     |                                 |     200 F9     | 
     |             200 F10             |<---------------| 
     |<--------------------------------|                | 
     |             ACK F11             |                | 
     |-------------------------------->|     ACK F12    | 
     |                                 |--------------->| 
     |                Both Way RTP Media                | 
     |<================================================>| 
     |                                 |     BYE F13    | 
     |             BYE F14             |<---------------| 
     |<--------------------------------|                | 
     |             200 F15             |                | 
     |-------------------------------->|     200 F16    | 
     |                                 |--------------->| 
     |                                 |                | 
    
   In this scenario, User A places a call to User B using first a 
   Redirect server then a Proxy Server.  The INVITE message is first 
   sent to the Redirect Server.  The Server returns a 302 Moved 
   Temporarily response (F2) containing a Contact header with User B's 
   current SIP address.  User A then generates a new INVITE and sends to 
   User B via the Proxy Server and the call proceeds normally.  In this 
   example, no SDP is present in the INVITE, so the SDP is carried in 
   the ACK message. 
    
   The call is terminated when User B sends a BYE message. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE A -> Redirect Server 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbf9f44 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
 
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   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F2 302 Moved Temporarily Redirect Proxy -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 302 Moved Temporarily 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbf9f44 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=53fHlqlQ2 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: sip:UserB@chicago.com 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F3 ACK A -> Redirect Server 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbf9f44 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=53fHlqlQ2 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F4 INVITE A -> Proxy 3 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@chicago.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 INVITE Proxy 3 -> B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@192.168.200.100 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.chicago.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
 
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   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss3.chicago.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F6 100 Trying Proxy 3 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
 
    
   F7 180 Ringing B -> Proxy 3 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.chicago.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.182.333 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss3.chicago.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.100> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F8 180 Ringing Proxy 3 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss3.chicago.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.100> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
 
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   F9 200 OK B -> Proxy 3 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.chicago.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.182.333 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss3.chicago.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.100> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 146 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.chicago.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.100 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F10 200 OK Proxy -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss3.chicago.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.100> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 146 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.chicago.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.100 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* ACK contains SDP of A since none present in INVITE */ 
    
   F11 ACK A -> Proxy 3 
    
 
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   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.100 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss3.chicago.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 ACK 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F12 ACK Proxy 3 -> B 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@111.112.112.114 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.chicago.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 ACK 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
   /* RTP streams are established between A and B*/ 
    
   /* User B Hangs Up with User A. */ 
    
   F13 BYE B -> Proxy 3 
    
   BYE sip:UserA@192.168.100.101 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.chicago.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss3.chicago.com;lr> 
 
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   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F14 BYE Proxy 3 -> A 
    
   BYE sip:UserA@192.168.100.101 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.chicago.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.200.100 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.chicago.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F15 200 OK A -> Proxy 3 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.chicago.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.182.333 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.chicago.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2 
    ;received=192.168.200.100 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F16 200 OK Proxy 3 -> B 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.chicago.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2 
    ;received=192.168.200.100 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
 





 
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3.1.7 Successful SIP to SIP with re-INVITE (IP Address Change) 
    
    
        User A               Proxy 2              User B 
           |   F1 INVITE        |                    | 
           |------------------->|      F2 INVITE     | 
           |   F3 100 Trying    |------------------->| 
           |<-------------------|   F4  180 Ringing  | 
           |   F5  180 Ringing  |<-------------------| 
           |<-------------------|                    | 
           |                    |   F6  200 OK       | 
           |   F7  200 OK       |<-------------------| 
           |<-------------------|                    | 
           |                 F8  ACK                 | 
           |---------------------------------------->| 
           |      Both Way RTP Media Established     | 
           |<=======================================>| 
           |                                         | 
           |            B changes IP address         | 
           |                                         | 
           |                 F9 INVITE               | 
           |<----------------------------------------| 
           |                F10 200 OK               | 
           |---------------------------------------->|   
           |                 F11  ACK                | 
           |<----------------------------------------| 
           |         New RTP Media Stream            | 
           |<=======================================>| 
           |                 F12 BYE                 | 
           |---------------------------------------->| 
           |               F25 200 OK                | 
           |<----------------------------------------| 
           |                                         | 
    
    
   This example shows a session in which the media is changes midway 
   through the session.  When User B?s IP address changes during the 
   session, User B sends a re-INVITE containing a new Contact and SDP 
   (version number incremented) information to A.  In this flow, the 
   proxy does not Record-Route so is not in the SIP messaging path after 
   the initial exchange. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   F1 INVITE A -> Proxy 2 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
 
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   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
 
   F2 INVITE Proxy 2 -> B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F3 100 Trying Proxy 2 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F4 180 Ringing B -> Proxy 2 
 
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   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 180 Ringing Proxy 2 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F6 200 OK B -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F7 200 OK Proxy 2 -> A 
 
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   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
   
    
   F8 ACK A -> B 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* RTP streams are established between A and B */ 
    
   /* B changes IP address and re-INVITEs A with new Contact and SDP */ 
 
    
   F9 INVITE B -> A 
    
   INVITE sip:UserA@192.168.100.101 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlkld5l 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 14 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.100> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
 
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   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844528 IN IP4 client.chicago.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.100 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 47172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F10 200 OK A ->B 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.chicago.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlkld5l 
    ;received=192.168.200.100 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 14 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 1000 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F11 ACK B -> A 
    
   ACK sip:UserA@192.168.100.101 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlkld5l 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   To: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 14 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* New RTP stream established between A and B */ 
    
   /* A hangs up with B */ 
    
   F12 BYE A -> B 
    
   BYE sip:UserB@192.168.200.100 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
 
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   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F13 200 OK B -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
    































 
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3.2 Failure Scenarios 
    
3.2.1 Unsuccessful SIP to SIP no answer 
    
   User A          Proxy 1          Proxy 2          User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |   INVITE F1    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F2    |                | 
     |     100  F3    |--------------->|   INVITE F4    | 
     |<---------------|     100  F5    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |      180 F6    | 
     |                |     180 F7     |<---------------| 
     |     180 F8     |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |                |                |                | 
     |   CANCEL F9    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     200 F10    |                |                | 
     |<---------------|   CANCEL F11   |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |                |     200 F12    |                | 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |   CANCEL F13   | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |     200 F14    | 
     |                |                |<---------------| 
     |                |                |     487 F15    | 
     |                |                |<---------------| 
     |                |                |     ACK F16    | 
     |                |     487 F17    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |     ACK F18    |                | 
     |     487 F19    |--------------->|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     ACK F20    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |                |                |                | 
    
   In this scenario, User A gives up on the call before User B answers 
   (sends a 200 OK response).  User A sends a CANCEL (F9) since no final 
   response had been received from User B.  If a 200 OK to the INVITE 
   had crossed with the CANCEL, User A would have sent an ACK then a BYE 
   to User B in order to properly terminate the call. 
    
   Note that the CANCEL message is acknowledged with a 200 OK on a hop 
   by hop basis, rather than end to end. 
    
    
    
    
    
 
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   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", realm="atlanta.com", 
    nonce="ze7k1ee88df84f1cec431ae6cbe5a359", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:UserB@biloxi.com", 
    response="b00b416324679d7e243f55708d44be7b" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /*Client for A prepares to receive data on port 49172 from the 
   network.*/ 
    
   F2 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
 
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   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F3 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F4 INVITE Proxy 2 -> B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   Max-Forwards: 68 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F5 100 Trying Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
 
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   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F6 180 Ringing B -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.client.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F7 180 Ringing Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F8 180 Ringing Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
 
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   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F9 CANCEL A -> Proxy 1 
    
   CANCEL sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F10 200 OK Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F11 CANCEL Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   CANCEL sip:UserA@atlanta.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F12 200 OK Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F13 CANCEL Proxy 2 -> B 
 
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   CANCEL sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F14 200 OK B -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F15 487 Request Terminated B -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F16 ACK Proxy 2 -> B 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F17 487 Request Terminated Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
 
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   SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F18 ACK Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F19 487 Request Terminated Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
 
    
   F20 ACK A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    





 
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3.2.2 Unsuccessful SIP to SIP busy 
    
   User A          Proxy 1          Proxy 2          User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |   INVITE F1    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F2    |                | 
     |     100  F3    |--------------->|   INVITE F4    | 
     |<---------------|     100  F5    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |      486 F6    | 
     |                |                |<---------------| 
     |                |                |     ACK F7     | 
     |                |      486 F8    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |      ACK F9    |                | 
     |     486 F10    |--------------->|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     ACK F11    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |                |                |                | 
    
    
   In this scenario, User B is busy and sends a 486 Busy Here response 
   to User A's INVITE.  Note that the non-2xx response is acknowleged on 
   a hop-by-hop basis instead of end-to-end. 
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE User A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", realm="atlanta.com", 
    nonce="dc3a5ab2530aa93112cf5904ba7d88fa", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:UserB@biloxi.com", 
    response="702138b27d869ac8741e10ec643d55be" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
 
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   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /*Client for A prepares to receive data on port 49172 from the 
   network.*/ 
    
   F2 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F3 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F4 INVITE Proxy 2 -> User B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
 
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   Max-Forwards: 68 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F5 100 Trying Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F6 486 Busy Here User B -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0  486 Busy Here 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F7 ACK Proxy 2 -> User B 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
 
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   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F8 486 Busy Here Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0  486 Busy Here 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F9 ACK Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F10 486 Busy Here Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0  486 Busy Here 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F11 ACK User A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
 
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   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    








































 
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3.2.3 Unsuccessful SIP to SIP no response 
    
   User A          Proxy 1          Proxy 2          User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |   INVITE F1    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F2    |                | 
     |     100  F3    |--------------->|   INVITE F4    | 
     |<---------------|     100  F5    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|   INVITE F6    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |   INVITE F7    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |   INVITE F8    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |   INVITE F9    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |   INVITE F10   | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |   INVITE F11   | 
     |                |     480 F12    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |     ACK F13    |                | 
     |     480 F14    |--------------->|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     ACK F15    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |                |                |                | 
    
   In this example, there is no response from User B to User A's INVITE 
   messages being re-transmitted by Proxy 2.  After the sixth re- 
   transmission, Proxy 2 gives up and sends a 480 No Response to User A.   
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE User A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", realm="atlanta.com", 
    nonce="cf5904ba7d8dc3a5ab2530aa931128fa", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:UserB@biloxi.com", 
    response="7afc04be7961f053c24f80e7dbaf888f" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
 
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   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /*Client for A prepares to receive data on port 49172 from the 
   network.*/ 
    
   F2 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F3 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F4 INVITE Proxy 2 -> User B 
 
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   INVITE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 68 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F5 100 Trying Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F6 INVITE Proxy 2 -> User B 
    
   Resend of Message F4 
    
    
   F7 INVITE Proxy 2 -> User B 
    
   Resend of Message F4 
    
    
   F8 INVITE Proxy 2 -> User B 
    
 
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   Resend of Message F4 
    
    
   F9 INVITE Proxy 2 -> User B 
    
   Resend of Message F4 
    
    
   F10 INVITE Proxy 2 -> User B 
    
   Resend of Message F4 
    
    
   F11 INVITE Proxy 2 -> User B 
    
   Resend of Message F4 
    
    
   /* Proxy 2 gives up */ 
    
   F12 480 No Response Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 480 No Response 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F13 ACK Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F14 480 No Response Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 480 No Response 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
 
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   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F15 ACK User A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
 
    

































 
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3.2.4 Unsuccessful SIP to SIP Temporarily Unavailable 
    
   User A          Proxy 1          Proxy 2          User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |   INVITE F1    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F2    |                | 
     |     100  F3    |--------------->|   INVITE F4    | 
     |<---------------|     100  F5    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|      180 F6    | 
     |                |     180 F7     |<---------------| 
     |     180 F8     |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                |     480 F9     | 
     |                |                |<---------------| 
     |                |                |     ACK F10    | 
     |                |     480 F11    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |     ACK F12    |                | 
     |     480 F13    |--------------->|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     ACK F14    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |                |                |                | 
    
    
   In this scenario, User B initially sends a 180 Ringing response to 
   User A, indicating that alerting is taking place.  However, then a 
   480 Unavailable is then sent to User A.  This response is 
   acknowledged then proxied back to User A. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", realm="atlanta.com", 
    nonce="aa9311cf5904ba7d8dc3a5ab253028fa", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:UserB@biloxi.com", 
    response="59a46a91bf1646562a4d486c84b399db" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
 
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   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /*Client for A prepares to receive data on port 49172 from the 
   network.*/ 
    
   F2 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F3 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
 
    
   F4 INVITE Proxy 2 -> B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
 
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   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 68 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F5 100 Trying Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F6 180 Ringing B -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
 
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   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F7 180 Ringing Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F8 180 Ringing Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F9 480 Temporarily Unavailable B -> Proxy 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 480 Temporarily Unavailable 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
    ;received=192.168.156.222 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F10 ACK Proxy 2 -> B 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
 
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   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss2.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F11 480 Temporarily Unavailable Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 480 Temporarily Unavailable 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F12 ACK Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F13 480 Temporarily Unavailable Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 480 Temporarily Unavailable 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F14 ACK A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
 
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   From: BigGuy <sip:UserA@atlanta.com>;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:UserB@biloxi.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
 














































 
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4  SIP to Gateway Dialing 
    
    
   In the following scenarios, User A (BigGuy sip:UserA@atlanta.com) is 
   a SIP phone or other SIP-enabled device.  User B is reachable via the 
   PSTN at global telephone number +19725552222. User A places a call 
   to User B through a Proxy Server Proxy 1 and a Network Gateway.  In 
   other scenarios, User A places calls to User C, who is served via a 
   PBX (Private Branch Exchange) and is identified by a private 
   extension 444-3333, or global number +1-918-555-3333.  Note that User 
   A uses his/her global telephone number +1-314-555-1111 in the From 
   header in the INVITE messages.  This then gives the Gateway the 
   option of using this header to populate the calling party 
   identification field in subsequent signaling (CgPN in ISUP).  Left 
   open is the issue of how the Gateway can determine the accuracy of 
   the telephone number, necessary before passing it as a valid CgPN in 
   the PSTN.  
    
   There is a major difference in the call flows in this section.  In- 
   band alerting (ringing tone, busy tone, recorded announcements, etc.) 
   may be present in the PSTN speech path after the receipt of the SS7 
   Address Complete Message (ACM) which maps to the SIP 180 Ringing 
   response.  To establish a two way media path prior to the call being 
   answered (200 OK), a 183 Session Progress response is sent instead of 
   a 180 Ringing.  Note that since this 183 response is not sent 
   reliably, it should be periodically resent by the gateway.  The same 
   SDP in the 183 should also be present in the 200 OK when the call is 
   answered. 
    
4.1 Success Scenarios 
    
   In these scenarios, User A is a SIP phone or other SIP-enabled 
   device.  User A places a call to User B in the PSTN or User C on a 
   PBX through a Proxy Server and a Gateway. 
 

















 
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4.1.1 Successful SIP to ISUP PSTN call 
    
   User A          Proxy 1           NGW 1          Switch B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |   INVITE F1    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     100  F2    |                |                | 
     |<---------------|   INVITE F3    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |                |     100  F4    |                | 
     |                |<---------------|     IAM F5     | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |     ACM F6     | 
     |                |     183 F7     |<---------------| 
     |     183 F8     |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |        Both Way RTP Media       |  One Way Voice | 
     |<===============================>|<===============| 
     |                |                |      ANM F9    | 
     |                |    200 F10     |<---------------| 
     |     200 F11    |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     ACK F12    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|     ACK F13    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |        Both Way RTP Media       | Both Way Voice | 
     |<===============================>|<==============>| 
     |     BYE F14    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|     BYE F15    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |                |     200 F16    |                | 
     |     200 F17    |<---------------|     REL F18    | 
     |<---------------|                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |     RLC F19    | 
     |                |                |<---------------| 
     |                |                |                | 
    
    
    
   User A dials the globalized E.164 number +19725552222 to reach 
   User B.  Note that A might have only dialed the last 7 digits, or 
   some other dialing plan.  It is assumed that the SIP User Agent 
   Client converts the digits into a global number and puts them into a 
   SIP URI.  Note that tel URIs could be used instead of SIP URIs. 
    
   User A could use either their SIP address (sip:UserA@atlanta.com) or 
   SIP telephone number (sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone) in 
   the From header.  In this example, the telephone number is included, 
   and it is shown as being passed as calling party identification 
   through the Network Gateway (NGW 1) to User B (F5).  Note that for 
   this number to be passed into the SS7 network, it would have to be 
   somehow verified for accuracy. 
 
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   In this scenario, User B answers the call then User A disconnects the 
   call.  Signaling between NGW 1 and User B's telephone switch is ANSI 
   ISUP.  For the details of SIP to ISUP mapping, refer to [SIP-ISUP]. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", realm="atlanta.com", 
    nonce="dc3a5ab25302aa931904ba7d88fa1cf5", opaque="", 
    uri="sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone", 
    response="ccdca50cb091d587421457305d097458c" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F2 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service function to determine the gateway 
   for terminating this call.  The call is forwarded to NGW 1.  Client 
   for A prepares to receive data on port 49172 from the 
 
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   network.*/ 
    
   F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 100 Trying NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 IAM NGW 1 -> User B 
    
   IAM 
   CdPN=972-555-2222,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
    
    
   F6 ACM User B -> NGW 1 
    
   ACM 
    
 
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   F7 183 Session Progress NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* NGW 1 sends PSTN audio (ringing) in the RTP path to A */ 
    
   F8 183 Session Progress Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
 
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   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F9 ANM User B -> NGW 1 
    
   ANM 
    
    
   F10 200 OK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F11 200 OK Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
 
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   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F12 ACK A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F13 ACK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   ACK sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
 
 
   /* User A Hangs Up with User B. */ 
    
   F14 BYE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   BYE sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
 
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   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F15 BYE Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   BYE sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F16 200 OK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F17 200 OK Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F18 REL NGW 1 -> B 
    
 
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   REL 
   CauseCode=16 Normal 
    
    
   F19 RLC B -> NGW 1 
    
   RLC 
    
    
    
    
 








































 
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4.1.2 Successful SIP to ISDN PBX call 
    
   User A          Proxy 1           GW 1             PBX C 
     |                |                |                | 
     |   INVITE F1    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     100  F2    |                |                | 
     |<---------------|   INVITE F3    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |                |     100  F4    |                | 
     |                |<---------------|    SETUP F5    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |  CALL PROC F6  | 
     |                |                |<---------------| 
     |                |                |   PROGress F7  | 
     |                |    180 F8      |<---------------| 
     |    180 F9      |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |                |                |  One Way Voice | 
     |                |                |<===============| 
     |                |                |   CONNect F10  | 
     |                |                |<---------------| 
     |                |                | CONNect ACK F11| 
     |                |    200 F12     |--------------->| 
     |     200 F13    |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     ACK F14    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|     ACK F15    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |        Both Way RTP Media       | Both Way Voice | 
     |<===============================>|<==============>| 
     |     BYE F16    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|     BYE F17    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |                |     200 F18    |                | 
     |     200 F19    |<---------------| DISConnect F20 | 
     |<---------------|                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |   RELease F21  | 
     |                |                |<---------------| 
     |                |                | RELease COM F22| 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |                | 
    
   User A is a SIP device while User C is connected via a  
   Gateway (GW 1) to a PBX.  The PBX connection is via a ISDN trunk 
   group.  User A dials User C's telephone number (918-555-3333) which 
   is globalized and put into a SIP URI. 
    
   The host portion of the Request-URI in the INVITE F3 is used to 
   identify the context (customer, trunk group, or line) in which the 
   private number 444-3333 is valid.  Otherwise, this INVITE message 
   could get forwarded by GW 1 and the context of the digits could 
 
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   become lost and the call unroutable.   
    
   Proxy 1 looks up the telephone number and locates the gateway that 
   serves User C.  User C is identified by its extension 
   (444-3333) in the Request-URI sent to GW 1. 
    
 
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone  SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: OtherGuy <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", 
    realm="atlanta.com", nonce="qo0dc3a5ab22aa931904badfa1cf5j9h",   
    opaque="", uri="sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone", 
    response="6c792f5c9fa360358b93c7fb826bf550" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F2 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: OtherGuy <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> GW 1 
    
 
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   INVITE sip:4443333@gw1.atlanta.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: OtherGuy <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 100 Trying GW -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: OtherGuy <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 SETUP GW 1 -> User C 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=SETUP 
   Bearer capability: Information transfer capability=0 (Speech) or 16 
   (3.1 kHz audio) 
   Channel identification=Preferred or exclusive B-channel 
   Progress indicator=1 (Call is not end-to-end ISDN;further call 
   progress information may be available inband) 
   Called party number: 
   Type of number unknown 
   Digits=444-3333 
    
    
   F6 CALL PROCeeding User C -> GW 1 
 
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   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=CALL PROC 
   Channel identification=Exclusive B-channel 
    
    
   F7 PROGress User C -> GW 1 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=PROG 
   Progress indicator=1 (Call is not end-to-end ISDN;further call 
   progress information may be available inband) 
    
    
   F8 180 Ringing GW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: OtherGuy <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:4443333@gw1.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
 
   F9 180 Ringing Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: OtherGuy <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:4443333@gw1.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
 
   F10 CONNect User C -> GW 1 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=CONN 
 
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   F11 CONNect ACK GW 1 -> User C 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=CONN ACK 
    
    
   F12 200 OK GW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: OtherGuy <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:4443333@gw1.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 140 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F13 200 OK Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: OtherGuy <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:4443333@gw1.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 140 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.atlanta.com 
 
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   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F14 ACK A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:4443333@gw1.atlanta.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: OtherGuy <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F15 ACK Proxy 1 -> GW 1 
    
   ACK sip:4443333@gw1.atlanta.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: OtherGuy <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
 
   /* User A Hangs Up with User B. */ 
    
   F16 BYE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   BYE sip:4443333@gw1.atlanta.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: OtherGuy <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 BYE 
 
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   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F17 BYE Proxy 1 -> GW 1 
    
   BYE sip:4443333@gw1.atlanta.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: OtherGuy <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F18 200 OK GW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: OtherGuy <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F19 200 OK Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: OtherGuy <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 3 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F20 DISConnect GW 1 -> User C 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
 
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   Message type=DISC 
   Cause=16 (Normal clearing) 
    
    
   F21 RELease User C -> GW 1 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=REL 
    
    
   F22 RELease COMplete GW 1 -> User C 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=REL COM 






































 
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4.1.3 Successful SIP to ISUP PSTN call with overflow 
    
   User A        Proxy 1         NGW 1          NGW 2        Switch B 
    |              |              |              |              | 
    |  INVITE F1   |              |              |              | 
    |------------->|              |              |              | 
    |              |  INVITE F2   |              |              | 
    |    100  F3   |------------->|              |              | 
    |<-------------|    503 F4    |              |              | 
    |              |<-------------|              |              | 
    |              |    ACK F5    |              |              | 
    |              |------------->|              |              | 
    |              |   INVITE F6                 |              | 
    |              |---------------------------->|     IAM F7   | 
    |              |                             |------------->| 
    |              |                             |     ACM F8   | 
    |              |            183 F9           |<-------------| 
    |   183 F10    |<----------------------------|              | 
    |<-------------|                             |              | 
    |               Two Way RTP Media            | One Way Voice| 
    |<==========================================>|<=============| 
    |              |                             |    ANM F11   | 
    |              |           200 F12           |<-------------| 
    |    200 F13   |<----------------------------|              | 
    |<-------------|                             |              | 
    |    ACK F14   |                             |              | 
    |------------->|            ACK F15          |              | 
    |              |---------------------------->|              | 
    |             Both Way RTP Media             |Both Way Voice| 
    |<==========================================>|<============>| 
    |    BYE F16   |                             |              | 
    |------------->|           BYE F17           |              | 
    |              |---------------------------->|              | 
    |              |           200 F18           |              | 
    |    200 F19   |<----------------------------|    REL F20   | 
    |<-------------|                             |------------->| 
    |              |                             |    RLC F21   | 
    |              |                             |<-------------| 
    |              |                             |              | 
    
   User A calls User B through Proxy 1.  Proxy 1 tries to route to a 
   Network Gateway NGW 1. NGW 1 is not available and responds with a 503 
   Service Unavailable (F4).  The call is then routed to Network Gateway 
   NGW 2.  User B answers the call.  The call is terminated when User A 
   disconnects the call.  NGW 2 and User B's telephone switch use ANSI 
   ISUP signaling. 
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
 
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   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", 
    realm="atlanta.com", nonce="b59311c3ba05b401cf80b2a2c5ac51b0", 
    opaque="", uri="sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone", 
    response="ba6ab44923fa2614b28e3e3957789ab0" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service function to determine where B is 
   located.  Proxy 1 receives a primary route NGW 1 and a secondary 
   route NGW 2.  NGW 1 is tried first */ 
    
   F2 INVITE Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
 
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   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F3 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F4 503 Service Unavailable NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 503 Service Unavailable 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=123456789 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 ACK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   ACK sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com>;user=phone> 
    ;tag=123456789 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 now tries secondary route to NGW 2 */ 
    
   F6 INVITE Proxy 1 -> NGW 2 
 
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   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ngw2.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F7 IAM NGW 2 -> User B 
    
   IAM 
   CdPN=972-555-2222,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
    
    
   F8 ACM User B -> NGW 2 
    
   ACM 
    
    
   F9 183 Session Progress NGW 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19725552222@ngw2.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
 
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   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw2.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.102 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* RTP packets are sent by GW to A for audio (e.g. ring tone) */ 
    
   F10 183 Session Progress Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19725552222@ngw2.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw2.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.102 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F11 ANM User B -> NGW 2 
    
   ANM 
    
    
   F12 200 OK NGW 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
 
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   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19725552222@ngw2.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw2.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.102 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F13 200 OK Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19725552222@ngw2.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw2.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.102 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F14 ACK A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:+19725552222@ngw2.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
 
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   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F15 ACK Proxy 1 -> NGW 2 
    
   ACK sip:+19725552222@ngw2.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* RTP streams are established between A and B(via the GW) */ 
    
   /* User A Hangs Up with User B. */ 
    
   F16 BYE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   BYE sip:+19725552222@ngw2.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F17 BYE Proxy 1 -> NGW 2 
    
   BYE sip:+19725552222@ngw2.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
 
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    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F18 200 OK NGW 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F19 200 OK Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F20 REL NGW 2 -> B 
    
   REL 
   CauseCode=16 Normal 
    
   F21 RLC B -> NGW 2 
    
   RLC 
 
    
    





 
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4.2  Failure Scenarios 
    
   In these failure scenarios, the call does not complete.  In most 
   cases, however, a media stream is still setup.  This is due to the 
   fact that most failures in dialing to the PSTN result in in-band 
   tones (busy, reorder tones or announcements - "The number you have 
   dialed has changed.  The new number is...").  The 183 Session 
   Progress response containing SDP media information is used to 
   setup this early media path so that the caller User A knows the final 
   disposition of the call. 
    
   The media stream is either terminated by the caller after the tone or 
   announcement has been heard and understood, or by the Gateway after a 
   timer expires. 
    
   In other failure scenarios, a SS7 Release with Cause Code is mapped 
   to a SIP response.  In these scenarios, the early media path is not 
   used, but the actual failure code is conveyed to the caller by the 
   SIP User Agent Client. 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
 












 
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4.2.1 Unsuccessful SIP to PSTN call: Treatment from PSTN 
    
   User A          Proxy 1           NGW 1            User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |   INVITE F1    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     100  F2    |                |                | 
     |<---------------|   INVITE F3    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |                |     100  F4    |                | 
     |                |<---------------|     IAM F5     | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |     ACM F6     | 
     |                |     183 F7     |<---------------| 
     |     183 F8     |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |         Two Way RTP Media       |  One Way Voice | 
     |<===============================>|<===============| 
     |                 Treatment Applied                | 
     |<=================================================| 
     |   CANCEL F9    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     200 F10    |                |                | 
     |<---------------|   CANCEL F11   |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |                |     200 F12    |                | 
     |                |<---------------|     REL F13    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |     RLC F14    | 
     |                |     487 F15    |<---------------| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |     ACK F16    |                | 
     |     487 F17    |--------------->|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     ACK F18    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |                |                |                | 
    
   User A calls User B in the PSTN through a proxy server Proxy 1 and a 
   Network Gateway NGW 1.  The call is rejected by the PSTN with an in- 
   band treatment (tone or recording) played.  User A hears the 
   treatment and then hangs up, which results in a CANCEL (F9) being 
   sent to terminate the call. (A BYE is not sent since no final 
   response was ever received by User A.) 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
 
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   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", 
    realm="atlanta.com", nonce="01cf8311c3b0b2a2c5ac51bb59a05b40", 
    opaque="", uri="sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone", 
    response="e178fbe430e6680a1690261af8831f40" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F2 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service function to determine where B is 
   located.  Based upon location analysis the call is forwarded to NGW 
   1.  Client for A prepares to receive data on port 49172 from the 
   network. */ 
    
   F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
 
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   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 100 Trying NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 IAM NGW 1 -> User B 
    
   IAM 
   CdPN=972-555-2222,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
    
    
   F6 ACM User B -> NGW 1 
    
   ACM 
    
    
   F7 183 Session Progress NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
 
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    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F8 183 Session Progress Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>   
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Caller hears the recorded announcement, then hangs up */ 
    
   F9 CANCEL A -> Proxy 1 
    
   CANCEL sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
 
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   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F10 200 OK Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F11 CANCEL Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   CANCEL sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F12 200 OK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F13 REL NGW 1 -> B 
    
   REL 
   CauseCode=18 No user responding 
    
    
   F14 RLC B -> NGW 1 
 
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   RLC 
    
    
   F15 487 Request Terminated NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F16 ACK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   ACK sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F17 487 Request Terminated Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F18 ACK A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
 
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   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
 
    








































 
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4.2.2 Unsuccessful SIP to PSTN: REL w/Cause from PSTN 
    
   User A          Proxy 1           NGW 1           Switch B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |   INVITE F1    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     100  F2    |                |                | 
     |<---------------|   INVITE F3    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |                |     100  F4    |                | 
     |                |<---------------|     IAM F5     | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |    REL(1) F6   | 
     |                |                |<---------------| 
     |                |                |     RLC F7     | 
     |                |     404 F8     |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |     ACK F9     |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |     404 F10    |                |                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     ACK F11    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |                |                |                | 
    
   User A calls PSTN User B through a Proxy Server Proxy 1 and a Network 
   Gateway NGW 1.  The call is rejected by the PSTN with a 
   ANSI ISUP Release message REL containing a specific Cause code. 
   This cause value (1) is mapped by the Gateway to a SIP 404 Address 
   Incomplete response which is proxied back to User A.  For more 
   details of ISUP cause value to SIP responses refer to [SIP-ISUP]. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+44-1234@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone  SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+44-1234@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", 
    realm="atlanta.com", nonce="j1c3b0b01cf832da2c5ac51bb59a05b40",  
    opaque="", uri="sip:+44-1234@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone", 
    response="a451358d46b55512863efe1dccaa2f42" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
 
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   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F2 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+44-1234@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service function to determine where B is 
   located.  Based upon location analysis the call is forwarded to NGW1. 
   Client for A prepares to receive data on port 49172 from the network. 
   */ 
    
   F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+44-1234@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+44-1234@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
 
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   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 100 Trying NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+44-1234@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 IAM NGW 1 -> User B 
    
   IAM 
   CdPN=44-1234,NPI=E.164,NOA=International 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
    
    
   F6 REL User B -> NGW 1 
    
   REL 
   CauseValue=1 Unallocated number 
    
    
   F7 RLC NGW 1 -> User B 
    
   RLC 
    
    
   /* Network Gateway maps CauseValue=1 to the SIP message 404 Not  
      Found */ 
    
   F8 404 Not Found NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 404 Not Found 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+44-1234@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Error-Info: <sip:not-found-ann@ann.atlanta.com> 
 
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   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F9 ACK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   ACK sip:+44-1234@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+44-1234@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F10 404 Not Found Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 404 Not Found 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+44-1234@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Error-Info: <sip:not-found-ann@ann.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F11 ACK User A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:+44-1234@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+44-1234@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
 
    
    






 
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4.2.3 Unsuccessful SIP to PSTN: ANM Timeout 
    
   User A          Proxy 1           NGW 1           Switch B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |   INVITE F1    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     100  F2    |                |                | 
     |<---------------|   INVITE F3    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |                |     100  F4    |                | 
     |                |<---------------|     IAM F5     | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |     ACM F6     | 
     |                |      183 F7    |<---------------| 
     |     183 F8     |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |                |      Timer on NGW 1 Expires     | 
     |                |                |                | 
     |                |                |     REL F9     | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |    RLC F10     | 
     |                |     480 F11    |<---------------| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |     ACK F12    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |     480 F13    |                |                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     ACK F14    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
    
   User A calls User B in the PSTN through a proxy server Proxy 1 and 
   Network Gateway NGW 1.  The call is released by the Gateway after a 
   timer expires due to no ANswer Message (ANM) being received.  The 
   Gateway sends an ISUP Release REL message to the PSTN and a 480 
   Temporarily Unavailable response to User A in the SIP network. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="UserA", 
 
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    realm="atlanta.com", nonce="da2c5ac51bb59a05j1c3b0b01cf832b40", 
    opaque="", uri="sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone", 
    response="579cb9db184cdc25bf816f37cbc03c7d" 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service function to determine where B is 
   located.  Based upon location analysis the call is forwarded to NGW 
   1.  Client for A prepares to receive data on port 49172 from the 
   network.*/ 
    
   F2 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> A 
    
   SIP/2.0  100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserA@192.168.100.101> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 147 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.com 
 
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   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.100.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 100 Trying NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0  100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 IAM NGW 1 -> User B 
    
   IAM 
   CdPN=972-555-2222,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
    
    
   F6 ACM User B -> NGW 1 
    
   ACM 
    
    
   F7 183 Session Progress NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
 
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   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F8 183 Session Progress Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* After NGW 1's timer expires, Network Gateway sends REL to ISUP 
   network and 480 to SIP network */ 
    
   F9 REL NGW 1 -> User B 
    
   REL 
   CauseCode=18 No user responding 
    
    
   F10 RLC User B -> NGW 1 
    
   RLC 
    
    
   F11 480 Temporarily Unavailable NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 480 Temporarily Unavailable 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
 
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    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Error-Info: <sip:temp-unavail-ann@ann.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F12 ACK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   ACK sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F13 480 Temporarily Unavailable F13 Proxy 1 -> User A 
    
   SIP/2.0 480 Temporarily Unavailable 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
    ;received=192.168.100.101 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Error-Info: <sip:temp-unavail-ann@ann.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F14 ACK User A -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9 
   From: BigGuy <sip:+13145551111@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=9fxced76sl 
   To: LittleGuy <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    ;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@atlanta.com 
 
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   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
 

















































 
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5  Gateway to SIP Dialing 
    
5.1 Success Scenarios 
    
   In these scenarios, User A is placing calls from the PSTN to User B 
   in a SIP network.  User A's telephone switch signals to a Network 
   Gateway (NGW 1) using ANSI ISUP. 
    
   Since the called SIP User Agent does not send in-band signaling 
   information, no early media path needs to be established on the IP 
   side.  As a result, the 183 Session Progress response is not used. 
   However, NGW 1 will establish a one way speech path prior to call 
   completion, and generate ringing for the PSTN caller.  Any tones or 
   recordings are generated by NGW 1 and played in this speech path. 
   When the call completes successfully, NGW 1 bridges the PSTN speech 
   path with the IP media path.   
    
   To reduce the number of messages, only a single proxy server is shown 
   in these flows, which means that the atlanta.com proxy server has 
   access to the biloxi.com location service. 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
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5.1.1 Successful PSTN to SIP call 
    
   Switch A          NGW 1          Proxy 1           User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |     IAM F1     |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F2    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|   INVITE F3    | 
     |                |     100  F4    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |      180 F5    | 
     |                |    180 F6      |<---------------| 
     |     ACM F7     |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |  One Way Voice |                |                | 
     |<===============|                |                | 
     |  Ringing Tone  |                |      200 F8    | 
     |<===============|    200 F9      |<---------------| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |     ACK F10    |                | 
     |     ANM F12    |--------------->|     ACK F11    | 
     |<---------------|                |--------------->| 
     | Both Way Voice |        Both Way RTP Media       | 
     |<==============>|<===============================>| 
     |     REL F13    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     RLC F14    |                |                | 
     |<---------------|     BYE F15    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|     BYE F16    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |     200 F17    | 
     |                |     200 F18    |<---------------| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |                | 
    
   In this scenario, User A from the PSTN calls User B through a Network 
   Gateway NGW1 and Proxy Server Proxy 1.  When User B answers the call 
   the media path is setup end-to-end. The call terminates when User A 
   hangs up the call, with User A's telephone switch sending an ISUP 
   RELease message which is mapped to a BYE by NGW 1. 
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 IAM User A -> NGW 1 
    
   IAM 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   CdPN=972-555-2222,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
    
    
   F2 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
 
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   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service function to determine where B is 
   located.  Based upon location analysis the call is forwarded to NGW 
   1.  NGW 1  prepares to receive data on port 3456 from User A.*/ 
    
   F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 100 Trying User B -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
 
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   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 180 Ringing User B -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F6 180 Ringing Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F7 ACM NGW 1 -> User A 
    
   ACM 
    
    
   F8 200 OK User B -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
 
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    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F9 200 OK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F10 ACK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
 
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   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F11 ACK Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F12 ANM User B -> NGW 1 
    
   ANM 
    
    
   /* RTP streams are established between A and B (via the GW) */ 
    
   /* User A Hangs Up with User B. */ 
    
   F13 REL User A -> NGW 1 
    
   REL 
   CauseCode=16 Normal 
    
    
   F14 RLC NGW 1 -> User A 
    
   RLC 
    
    
   F15 BYE NGW 1-> Proxy 1 
    
   BYE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F16 BYE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
 
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   BYE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F17 200 OK User B -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F18 200 OK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    















 
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5.1.2 Successful PSTN to SIP call, Fast Answer 
    
   Switch A           NGW 1          Proxy 1           User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |     IAM F1     |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F2    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|   INVITE F3    | 
     |                |     100  F4    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |      200 F5    | 
     |                |     200 F6     |<---------------| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |     ACK F7     |                | 
     |     ANM F9     |--------------->|     ACK F8     | 
     |<---------------|                |--------------->| 
     | Both Way Voice |        Both Way RTP Media       | 
     |<==============>|<===============================>| 
     |     REL F10    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     RLC F11    |                |                | 
     |<---------------|     BYE F12    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|     BYE F13    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |     200 F14    | 
     |                |     200 F15    |<---------------| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |                | 
    
   This "fast answer" scenario is similar to 5.1.1 except that User B 
   immediately accepts the call, sending a 200 OK (F5) without sending a 
   180 Ringing response.  The Gateway then sends an Answer Message (ANM) 
   without sending an Address Complete Message (ACM).  Note that for 
   ETSI and some other ISUP variants, a CONnect message (CON) would be 
   sent instead of the ANM. 
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 IAM User A -> NGW 1 
    
   IAM 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   CdPN=972-555-2222,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
    
    
   F2 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
 
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   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service function to determine where B is 
   located.  Based upon location analysis the call is forwarded to User 
   B.  User B  prepares to receive data on port 3456 from User A.*/ 
    
   F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   INVITE UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
 
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   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 200 OK User B -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F6 200 OK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
 
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   F7 ACK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F8 ACK Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   ACK UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=130.131.132.14 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F9 ANM User B -> NGW 1 
    
   ANM 
    
    
   /* RTP streams are established between A and B (via the GW) */ 
    
   /* User A Hangs Up with User B. */ 
    
   F10 REL ser A -> NGW 1 
    
   REL 
   CauseCode=16 Normal 
    
    
   F11 RLC NGW 1 -> User A 
    
   RLC 
    
    
   F12 BYE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   BYE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
 
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   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F13 BYE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   BYE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F14 200 OK User B -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F15 200 OK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    





 
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5.1.3 Successful PBX to SIP call 
    
   PBX A            GW 1           Proxy 1           User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |    Seizure     |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |      Wink      |                |                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |  MF Digits F1  |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F2    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|   INVITE F3    | 
     |                |     100  F4    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |      180 F5    | 
     |                |    180 F6      |<---------------| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |  One Way Voice |                |                | 
     |<===============|                |                | 
     |  Ringing Tone  |                |      200 F7    | 
     |<===============|     200 F8     |<---------------| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |     ACK F9     |                | 
     |     Seizure    |--------------->|     ACK F10    | 
     |<---------------|                |--------------->| 
     | Both Way Voice |        Both Way RTP Media       | 
     |<==============>|<===============================>| 
     | Seizure Removal|                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     | Seizure Removal|                |                | 
     |<---------------|     BYE F11    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|     BYE F12    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |     200 F13    | 
     |                |     200 F14    |<---------------| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |                | 
    
   In this scenario, User A dials from PBX A to User B through GW 1 and 
   Proxy 1.  This is an example of a call that appears destined for the 
   PSTN but instead is routed to a SIP Client. 
    
   Signaling between PBX A and GW 1 is Feature Group B (FGB) circuit 
   associated signaling, in-band Mult-Frequency (MF) outpulsing.  After 
   the receipt of the 180 Ringing from User B, GW 1 generates ringing 
   tone for User A. 
    
   User B answers the call by sending a 200 OK.  The call terminates 
   when User A hangs up, causing GW1 to send a BYE. 
    
   The  Gateway can only identify the trunk group that the 
   call came in on, it cannot identify the individual line on PBX A that 
   is placing the call.  The SIP URI used to identify the caller is 
 
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   shown in these flows as sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com.   
    
   Message Details 
    
 
   PBX A -> GW 1 
    
   Seizure 
    
    
   GW 1 -> PBX A 
    
   Wink 
    
    
   F1 MF Digits PBX A -> GW 1 
    
   KP 1 972 555 2222 ST 
    
    
   F2 INVITE GW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service function to determine where the 
   phone number +19725552222 is located.  Based upon location 
   analysis the call is forwarded to SIP User B. */ 
    
   F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
 
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   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> GW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 180 Ringing User B -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F6 180 Ringing Proxy 1 -> GW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
 
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   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* One way Voice path is established between GW and the PBX for 
   ringing. */ 
    
   F7 200 OK User B -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.atlanta.com 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F8 200 OK Proxy 1 -> GW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 145 
    
   v=0 
 
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   o=UserB 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.200.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F9 ACK GW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F10 ACK Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* RTP streams are established between A and B (via the GW) */ 
    
   /* User A Hangs Up with User B. */ 
    
   F11 BYE GW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   BYE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
 
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   F12 BYE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   BYE sip:UserB@192.168.200.201 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F13 200 OK User B -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F14 200 OK Proxy 1 -> GW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 2 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
 
    












 
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5.2 Failure Scenarios 
    
5.2.1 Unsuccessful PSTN to SIP REL, SIP error mapped to REL 
    
   Switch A            GW 1          Proxy 1           User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |     IAM F1     |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F2    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |                |     604 F3     |                | 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |     ACK F4     |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |     REL F5     |                |                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     RLC F6     |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |                |                |                | 
    
   User A attempts to place a call through Gateway GW 1 and Proxy 1, 
   which is unable to find any routing for the number.  The call is 
   rejected by Proxy 1 with a REL message containing a specific Cause 
   value mapped by the gateway based on the SIP error. 
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 IAM User A -> GW 1 
    
   IAM 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   CdPN=972-555-9999,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
    
    
   F2 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+1972559999@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone  SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=076342s 
   To: <sip:+1972559999@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 140 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.201 
   t=0 0 
 
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   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service to find a route to +1-972-555- 
   9999.  A route is not found, so Proxy 1 rejects the call. */ 
    
   F3 604 Does Not Exist Anywhere Proxy 1 -> GW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 604 Does Not Exist Anywhere 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=076342s 
   To: <sip:+1972559999@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=6a34d410 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Error-Info: <sip:does-not-exist@ann.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F4 ACK GW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:+1972559999@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=076342s 
   To: <sip:+1972559999@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=6a34d410 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 REL GW 1 -> User A 
    
   REL 
   CauseCode=1 
    
    
   F6 RLC User A -> GW 1 
    
   RLC 
 
    
    
    







 
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5.2.2 Unsuccessful PSTN to SIP REL, SIP busy mapped to REL 
    
   Switch A          NGW 1           Proxy 1          User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |     IAM F1     |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F2    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|   INVITE F3    | 
     |                |     100  F4    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |      600 F5    | 
     |                |                |<---------------| 
     |                |                |      ACK F6    | 
     |                |     600 F7     |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |     ACK F8     |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |   REL(17) F9   |                |                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |     RLC F10    |                |                | 
     |<-------------->|                |                | 
     |                |                |                | 
    
   In this scenario, User A calls User B through Network Gateway NGW 1 
   and Proxy 1.  The call is routed to User B by Proxy 1.  The call is 
   rejected by User B who sends a 600 Busy Everywhere response.  The 
   Gateway sends a REL message containing a specific Cause value mapped 
   by the gateway based on the SIP error. 
    
   Since no interworking is indicated in the IAM (F1), the busy tone is 
   generated locally by User A's telephone switch.  In scenario 5.2.3, 
   the busy signal is generated by the Gateway since interworking is 
   indicated.  For more discussion on interworking, refer to [SIP-ISUP]. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 IAM User A -> NGW 1 
    
   IAM 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   CdPN=972-555-2222,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
    
    
   F2 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone  SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
 
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   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 140 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service function to determine a route for 
   +19725552222.  The call is then forwarded to User B. */ 
    
   F3 INVITE F3 Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   INVITE UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 140 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
 
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   F5 600 Busy Everywhere User B -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 600 Busy Everywhere 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F6 ACK Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   ACK UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F7 600 Busy Everywhere Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 600 Busy Everywhere 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F8 ACK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
 
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   F9 REL NGW 1 -> User A 
    
   REL 
   CauseCode=17 Busy 
    
    
   F10 RLC User A -> NGW 1 
    
   RLC 
    
    
    
    







































 
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5.2.3 Unsuccessful PSTN->SIP, SIP error interworking to tones 
    
   Switch A          NGW 1           Proxy 1          User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |     IAM F1     |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F2    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|   INVITE F3    | 
     |                |     100  F4    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |      600 F5    | 
     |                |                |<---------------| 
     |                |                |      ACK F6    | 
     |                |     600 F7     |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |     ACK F8     |                | 
     |     ACM F9     |--------------->|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     | One Way Voice  |                |                | 
     |<===============|                |                | 
     |    Busy Tone   |                |                | 
     |<===============|                |                | 
     |   REL(16) F10  |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     RLC F11    |                |                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |                |                |                | 
    
    
   In this scenario, User A calls User B through Network Gateway NGW1 
   and Proxy 1.  The call is routed to User B by Proxy 1.  The call is 
   rejected by the User B client.  NGW 1 sets up a two way voice path to 
   User A and plays busy tone.  The caller then disconnects 
    
   NGW 1 plays the busy tone since the IAM (F1) indicates the 
   interworking is present.  In scenario 5.2.2, with no interworking, 
   the busy indication is carried in the REL Cause value and is 
   generated locally instead. 
    
   Again, note that for ETSI or ITU ISUP, a CONnect message would be 
   sent instead of the Answer Message. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 IAM User A -> NGW 1 
    
   IAM 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   CdPN=972-555-2222,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   Interworking=encountered 
    
 
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   F2 INVITE NGW1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone  SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service function to determine a route for 
   +19725552222.  The call is then forwarded to User B. */ 
    
   F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   INVITE UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 100 Trying User B -> Proxy 1 
 
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   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 600 Busy Everywhere User B -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 600 Busy Everywhere 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F6 ACK Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   ACK UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F7 600 Busy Everywhere Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 600 Busy Everywhere 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F8 ACK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
 
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   ACK sip:+19725552222@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F9 ACM NGW 1 -> User A 
    
   ACM 
    
    
   /* A one way speech path is established between NGW 1 and User A. */ 
    
   /* Call Released after User A hangs up. */ 
    
   F10 REL User A -> NGW 1 
    
   REL 
   CauseCode=16 
    
    
   F11 RLC NGW 1 -> User A 
    
   RLC 
    
 
    




















 
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5.2.4 Unsuccessful PSTN->SIP, ACM timeout 
    
   Switch A          NGW 1           Proxy 1          User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |     IAM F1     |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F2    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|   INVITE F3    | 
     |                |     100  F4    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |   INVITE F5    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |   INVITE F6    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |   INVITE F7    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |   INVITE F8    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |   INVITE F9    | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |     REL F10    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     RLC F11    |                |                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |                |   CANCEL F12   |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |                |     200 F13    |                | 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
    
   User A calls User B through NGW 1 and Proxy 1.  Proxy 1 re-sends the 
   INVITE after the expiration of SIP timer T1 without receiving any 
   response from User B.  User B never responds with 180 Ringing or any 
   other response (it is reachable but unresponsive).  After the 
   expiration of a timer, User A's network disconnects the call by 
   sending a Release message REL.  The Gateway maps this to a CANCEL. 
   Message Details 
 
   F1 IAM User A -> NGW 1 
    
   IAM 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   CdPN=972-555-2222,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
    
   F2 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone  SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
 
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   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service function to determine a route for 
   +19725552222.  The call is then forwarded to User B. */ 
    
   F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com  SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   c c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 100 Trying Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
 
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   Same as Message F3 
    
    
   F6 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   Same as Message F3 
    
    
   F7 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   Same as Message F3 
    
    
   F8 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   Same as Message F3 
    
    
   F9 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   Same as Message F3 
    
    
   /* Timer expires in User A's access network. */ 
    
   F10 REL User A -> NGW 1 
    
   REL 
   CauseCode=16 Normal 
    
    
   F11 RLC NGW 1 -> User A 
    
   RLC 
    
    
   F12 CANCEL NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   CANCEL sip:+19725552222@ss11.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F13 200 OK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
 
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    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    












































 
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5.2.5 Unsuccessful PSTN->SIP, ACM timeout, stateless Proxy 
    
   Switch A          NGW 1      Stateless Proxy 1     User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |     IAM F1     |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F2    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|   INVITE F3    | 
     |                |   INVITE F4    |--------------->| 
     |                |--------------->|   INVITE F5    | 
     |                |   INVITE F6    |--------------->| 
     |                |--------------->|   INVITE F7    | 
     |                |   INVITE F8    |--------------->| 
     |                |--------------->|   INVITE F9    | 
     |                |   INVITE F10   |--------------->| 
     |                |--------------->|   INVITE F11   | 
     |                |   INVITE F12   |--------------->| 
     |                |--------------->|   INVITE F13   | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |     REL F14    |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     RLC F15    |                |                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
    
   In this scenario, User A calls User B through NGW 1 and Proxy 1. 
   Since Proxy 1 is stateless (it does not send a 100 Trying response), 
   NGW 1 re-sends the INVITE message after the expiration of 
   SIP timer T1.  User B does not respond with 180 Ringing.  User A's 
   network disconnects the call with a release REL (CauseCode=102 
   Timeout). 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 IAM User A -> NGW 1 
    
   IAM 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   CdPN=972-555-2222,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
    
    
   F2 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone  SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
 
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   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service function to determine a route for 
   +19725552222.  The call is then forwarded to User B. */ 
    
   F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com  SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   Same as Message F2 
    
    
   F5 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   Same as Message F3 
    
    
   F6 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   Same as Message F2 
    
 
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   F7 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   Same as Message F3 
    
    
   F8 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   Same as Message F2 
    
    
   F9 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   Same as Message F3 
    
    
   F10 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   Same as Message F2 
    
    
   F11 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   Same as Message F3 
    
    
   F12 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   Same as Message F2 
    
    
   F13 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   Same as Message F3 
    
    
   /* A timer expires in User A's access network. */ 
    
   F14 REL User A -> NGW 1 
    
   REL 
   CauseCode=102 Timeout 
    
    
   F15 RLC NGW 1 -> User A 
    
   RLC 
    
    
 
    

 
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5.2.6 Unsuccessful PSTN->SIP, Caller Abandonment 
    
   Switch A          NGW 1          Proxy 1           User B 
     |                |                |                | 
     |     IAM F1     |                |                | 
     |--------------->|   INVITE F2    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|   INVITE F3    | 
     |                |     100  F4    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |      180 F5    | 
     |                |    180 F6      |<---------------| 
     |     ACM F7     |<---------------|                | 
     |<---------------|                |                | 
     |  One Way Voice |                |                | 
     |<===============|                |                | 
     |  Ringing Tone  |                |                | 
     |<===============|                |                | 
     |                |                |                | 
     |     REL F8     |                |                | 
     |--------------->|                |                | 
     |     RLC F9     |                |                | 
     |<---------------|   CANCEL F10   |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |                |     200 F11    |                | 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |                |   CANCEL F12   | 
     |                |                |--------------->| 
     |                |                |     200 F13    | 
     |                |                |<---------------| 
     |                |                |     487 F14    | 
     |                |                |<---------------| 
     |                |                |     ACK F15    | 
     |                |     487 F16    |--------------->| 
     |                |<---------------|                | 
     |                |     ACK F17    |                | 
     |                |--------------->|                | 
     |                |                |                | 
    
    
   In this scenario, User A calls User B through NGW 1 and Proxy 1. 
   User B does not respond with 200 OK.  NGW 1 plays ringing tone since 
   the ACM indicates that interworking has been encountered.  User A 
   disconnects the call with a Release message REL which is mapped by 
   NGW 1 to a CANCEL.  Note that if User B had sent a 200 OK response 
   after the REL, NGW 1 would have sent an ACK then a BYE to properly 
   terminate the call. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 IAM User A -> NGW 1 
 
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   IAM 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   CdPN=972-555-2222,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
    
    
   F2 INVITE A -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone  SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service function to determine a route for 
   +19725552222.  The call is then forwarded to User B. */ 
    
   F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com  SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
 
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   m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 100 Trying User B -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 180 Ringing User B -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F6 180 Ringing Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:UserB@192.168.200.201> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F7 ACM NGW 1 -> User A 
    
   ACM 
    
 
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   /* User A hangs up */ 
    
   F8 REL User A -> NGW 1 
    
   REL 
   CauseCode=16 Normal 
    
    
   F9 RLC NGW 1 -> User A 
    
   RLC 
    
    
   F10 CANCEL NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   CANCEL sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone  SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F11 200 OK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F12 CANCEL Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   CANCEL sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F13 200 OK User B -> Proxy 1 
    
 
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   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 CANCEL 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F14 487 Request Terminated User B -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F15 ACK Proxy 1 -> User B 
    
   ACK sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F16 487 Request Terminated Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F17 ACK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:+19725552222@ss11.atlanta.com;user=phone  SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
 
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   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19725552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    






































 
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6  Gateway to Gateway Dialing via SIP Network 
    
   In these scenarios, both the caller and the called party are in the 
   telephone network, either normal PSTN subscribers or PBX extensions. 
   The calls route through two Gateways and at least one SIP Proxy 
   Server.  The Proxy Server performs the authentication and location of 
   the Gateways. 
    
   Again it is noted that the intent of this call flows document is not 
   to provide a detailed parameter level mapping of SIP to PSTN 
   protocols.  For information on SIP to ISUP mapping, the reader is 
   referred to other references [SIP-ISUP]. 
    
6.1 Success Scenarios 
    
   In these scenarios, the call is successfully completed between the 
   two Gateways allowing the PSTN or PBX users to communicate.  The 183 
   Session Progress response is used to indicate in-band alerting may 
   flow from the called party telephone switch to the caller. 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
















 
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6.1.1 Successful ISUP PSTN to ISUP PSTN call 
    
   Switch A       NGW 1         Proxy 1         GW 2         Switch C 
    |              |              |              |              | 
    |     IAM F1   |              |              |              | 
    |------------->|              |              |              | 
    |              |  INVITE F2   |              |              | 
    |              |------------->|  INVITE F3   |              | 
    |              |              |------------->|     IAM F4   | 
    |              |              |              |------------->| 
    |              |              |              |     ACM F5   | 
    |              |              |   183 F6     |<-------------| 
    |              |    183 F7    |<-------------|              | 
    |    ACM F8    |<-------------|              |              | 
    |<-------------|              |              |              | 
    | One Way Voice|      Two Way RTP Media      | One Way Voice| 
    |<=============|<===========================>|<=============| 
    |              |              |              |    ANM F9    | 
    |              |              |   200 F10    |<-------------| 
    |              |    200 F11   |<-------------|              | 
    |    ANM F12   |<-------------|              |              | 
    |<-------------|              |              |              | 
    |              |    ACK F13   |              |              | 
    |              |------------->|    ACK F14   |              | 
    |              |              |------------->|              | 
    |Both Way Voice|     Both Way RTP Media      |Both Way Voice| 
    |<=============|<===========================>|<=============| 
    |              |              |              |    REL F15   | 
    |              |              |              |<-------------| 
    |              |              |   BYE F16    |              | 
    |              |    BYE F18   |<-------------|    RLC F17   | 
    |              |<-------------|              |------------->| 
    |              |              |              |              | 
    |              |    200 F19   |              |              | 
    |              |------------->|    200 F20   |              | 
    |              |              |------------->|              | 
    |    REL F21   |              |              |              | 
    |<-------------|              |              |              | 
    |    RLC F22   |              |              |              | 
    |------------->|              |              |              | 
    |              |              |              |              | 
    
    
   In this scenario, User A in the PSTN calls User C who is an extension 
   on a PBX.  User A's telephone switch signals via SS7 to the Network 
   Gateway NGW 1, while User C's PBX signals via SS7 with the  
   Gateway GW 2.  The CdPN and CgPN are mapped by GW1 into SIP URIs and 
   placed in the To and From headers.  Proxy 1 looks up the dialed 
   digits in the Request-URI and maps the digits to the PBX extension of 
   User C which is served by GW 2.  The Proxy in F3 uses the host 
   portion of the Request-URI to identify what private dialing plan is 
   being referenced. The INVITE is then forwarded to GW 2 for call 
 
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   completion.  An early media path is established end-to-end so that 
   User A can hear the ringing tone generated by PBX C. 
    
   User C answers the call and the media path is cut through in both 
   directions.  User B hangs up terminating the call. 
    
   Message Details 
    
    
   F1 IAM Switch A -> NGW 1 
    
   IAM 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   CdPN=918-555-3333,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
    
    
   F2 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone  SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 gw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 consults Location Service and translates the dialed number 
   to a private number in the Request-URI*/ 
    
   F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> GW 2 
    
   INVITE sip:4443333@gw2.atlanta.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@ngw1.atlanta.com 
 
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   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 ngw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.101 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 IAM GW 2 -> Switch C 
    
   IAM 
   CgPN=314-555-1111,NPI=E.164,NOA=National 
   CdPN=444-3333,NPI=Private,NOA=Subscriber 
    
    
   F5 ACM Switch C -> GW 2 
    
   ACM 
    
    
   /* Based on the ACM message, GW 2 returns a 183 response.  In-band 
   call progress indications are sent to User A through NGW 1. */ 
    
   F6 183 Session Progress GW 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:4443333@gw2.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 149 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 987654321 987654321 IN IP4 gw2.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.202 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 14918 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
 
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   F7 183 Session Progress Proxy 1 -> GW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:4443333@gw2.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 149 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 987654321 987654321 IN IP4 gw2.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.202 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 14918 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* NGW 1 receives packets from GW 2 with encoded ringback, tones or 
   other audio.  NGW 1 decodes this and places it on the originating 
   trunk. */ 
    
   F8 ACM NGW 1 -> Switch A 
    
   ACM 
    
    
   /* User B answers */ 
    
   F9 ANM Switch C -> GW 2 
    
   ANM 
    
    
   F10 200 OK GW 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@ngw1.atlanta.com 
 
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   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:4443333@gw2.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 149 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 987654321 987654321 IN IP4 gw2.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.202 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 14918 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F11 200 OK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:4443333@gw2.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 149 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 987654321 987654321 IN IP4 gw2.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.202 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 14918 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
    
   F12 ANM NGW 1 -> Switch A 
    
   ANM 
    
    
   F13 ACK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:4443333@gw2.atlanta.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
 
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   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F14 ACK Proxy 1 -> GW 2 
    
   ACK sip:4443333@gw2.atlanta.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2 
    ;received=192.168.255.101 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   To: <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   /* RTP streams are established between NGW 1 and GW 2. */ 
    
   /* User B Hangs Up with User A. */ 
    
   F15 REL Switch C -> GW 2 
    
   REL 
   CauseCode=16 Normal 
    
    
   F16 BYE GW 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   BYE sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw2.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKtexx6 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   To: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 4 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F17 RLC GW 2 -> Switch C 
    
   RLC 
    
    
   F18 BYE Proxy 1 -> NGW 1 
    
   BYE sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw2.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKtexx6 
    ;received=192.168.255.202 
 
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   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   To: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 4 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F19 200 OK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw2.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKtexx6 
    ;received=192.168.255.202 
   From: <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   To: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 4 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F20 200 OK Proxy 1 -> GW 2 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw2.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKtexx6 
    ;received=192.168.255.202 
   From: <sip:+19185553333@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=314159 
   To: <sip:+13145551111@ngw1.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=7643kals 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@ngw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 4 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F21 REL Switch C -> GW 2 
    
   REL 
   CauseCode=16 Normal 
    
    
   F22 RLC GW 2 -> Switch C 
    
   RLC 
    
    







 
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6.1.2 Successful FGB PBX to ISDN PBX call with overflow 
    
 PBX A       GW 1        Proxy 1        GW 2         GW 3        PBX C 
   |            |            |            |            |            | 
   |  Seizure   |            |            |            |            | 
   |----------->|            |            |            |            | 
   |    Wink    |            |            |            |            | 
   |<-----------|            |            |            |            | 
   |MF Digits F1|            |            |            |            | 
   |----------->|            |            |            |            | 
   |            | INVITE F2  |            |            |            | 
   |            |----------->| INVITE F3  |            |            | 
   |            |            |----------->|            |            | 
   |            |            |   503 F4   |            |            | 
   |            |            |<-----------|            |            | 
   |            |            |   ACK F5   |            |            | 
   |            |            |----------->|            |            | 
   |            |            |  INVITE F6              |            | 
   |            |            |------------------------>|  SETUP F7  | 
   |            |            |          100  F8        |----------->| 
   |            |            |<------------------------|CALL PROC F9| 
   |            |            |                         |<-----------| 
   |            |            |                         | ALERT F10  | 
   |            |            |          180 F11        |<-----------| 
   |            |  180 F12   |<------------------------|            | 
   |            |<-----------|                         |            | 
   | Ringtone   |            |                         |OneWay Voice| 
   |<===========|            |                         |<===========| 
   |            |            |                         | CONNect F13| 
   |            |            |         200 F14         |<-----------| 
   |            |  200 F15   |<------------------------|            | 
   |  Seizure   |<-----------|                         |            | 
   |<-----------|  ACK F16   |                         |            | 
   |            |----------->|         ACK F17         |            | 
   |            |            |------------------------>|CONN ACK F18| 
   |            |            |                         |----------->| 
   |BothWayVoice|          Both Way RTP Media          |BothWayVoice| 
   |<==========>|<====================================>|<==========>| 
   |            |            |                         |  DISC F19  | 
   |            |            |                         |<-----------| 
   |            |            |         BYE F20         |            | 
   |            |  BYE F21   |<------------------------|  REL F22   | 
   |Seiz Removal|<-----------|                         |----------->| 
   |<-----------|  200 F23   |                         |            | 
   |Seiz Removal|----------->|         200 F24         |            | 
   |----------->|            |------------------------>| REL COM F25| 
   |            |            |                         |<-----------| 
   |            |            |                         |            | 
    
    
    
   PBX User A calls PBX User C via Gateway GW 1 and Proxy 1.  During the 
 
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   attempt to reach User C via GW 2, an error is encountered - Proxy 1 
   receives a 503 Service Unavailable (F4) response to the forwarded 
   INVITE.  This could be due to all circuits being busy, or some other 
   outage at GW 2.  Proxy 1 recognizes the error and uses an alternative 
   route via GW 3 to terminate the call.  From there, the call proceeds 
   normally with User C answering the call.  The call is terminated when 
   User C hangs up. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   PBX A -> GW 1 
    
   Seizure 
    
    
   GW 1 -> PBX A 
    
   Wink 
    
    
   F1 MF Digits PBX A -> GW 1 
    
   KP 444 3333 ST 
    
    
   F2 INVITE GW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   INVITE sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   To: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 gw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   /* Proxy 1 uses a Location Service function to determine where B is 
   located.  Response is returned listing alternative routes, GW2 and 
   GW3, which are then tried sequentially. */ 
    
 
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   F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> GW 2 
    
   INVITE sip:4443333@gw2.atlanta.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   To: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 gw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F4 503 Service Unavailable GW 2 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 503 Service Unavailable 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   To: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F5 ACK Proxy 1 -> GW 2 
    
   ACK sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Max-Forward: 70 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   To: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com>;tag=314159 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
 
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   F6 INVITE Proxy 1 -> GW 3 
    
   INVITE sip:+19185553333@gw3.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   To: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 141 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 gw1.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.201 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F7 SETUP GW 3 -> PBX C 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=SETUP 
   Bearer capability: Information transfer capability=0 (Speech) or 16 
   (3.1 kHz audio) 
   Channel identification=Preferred or exclusive B-channel 
   Progress indicator=1 (Call is not end-to-end ISDN; further call 
   progress information may be available inband) 
   Called party number: 
   Type of number and numbering plan ID=33 (National number in ISDN 
   numbering plan) 
   Digits=918-555-3333 
    
    
   F8 100 Trying GW 3 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 100 Trying 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   To: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com> 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
 
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   F9 CALL PROCeeding PBX C -> GW 3 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=CALL PROC 
    
    
   F10 ALERT PBX C -> GW 3 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=PROG 
    
    
   /* Based on ALERT message, GW 3 returns a 180 response. */ 
    
   F11 180 Ringing GW 3 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   To: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com>;tag=123456789 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19185553333@gw3.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F12 180 Ringing Proxy 1 -> GW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   To: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com>;tag=123456789 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19185553333@gw3.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Length: 0 
 
    
   F13 CONNect PBX C -> GW 3 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=CONN 
    
    
   F14 200 OK GW 3 -> Proxy 1 
 
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   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   To: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com>;tag=123456789 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19185553333@gw3.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 149 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 987654321 987654321 IN IP4 gw3.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.203 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 14918 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   F15 200 OK Proxy 1 -> GW 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Record-Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   To: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com>;tag=123456789 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Contact: <sip:+19185553333@gw3.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 149 
    
   v=0 
   o=GW 987654321 987654321 IN IP4 gw3.atlanta.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 192.168.255.203 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 14918 RTP/AVP 0 
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 
    
    
   GW 1 -> PBX A 
    
   Seizure 
    
    
 
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   F16 ACK GW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   ACK sip:+19185553333@gw3.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   To: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com>;tag=123456789 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F17 ACK Proxy 1 -> GW 3 
    
   ACK sip:+19185553333@gw3.atlanta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65 
    ;received=192.168.255.201 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   To: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com>;tag=123456789 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 ACK 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F18 CONNect ACK GW 3 -> PBX C 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=CONN ACK 
    
    
   /* RTP streams are established between GW 1 and GW 3. */ 
    
   /* User B Hangs Up with User A. */ 
    
   F19 DISConnect PBX C -> GW 3 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=DISC 
   Cause=16 (Normal clearing) 
    
    
   F20 BYE GW 3 -> Proxy 1 
    
   BYE sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw3.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuwq 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Route: <sip:ss1.atlanta.com;lr> 
   From: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com>;tag=123456789 
   To: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
 
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   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F21 BYE Proxy 1 -> GW 1 
    
   BYE sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw3.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuwq 
    ;received=192.168.255.203 
   Max-Forwards: 69 
   From: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com>;tag=123456789 
   To: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   GW 1 -> PBX A 
    
   Seizure removal 
    
    
   F22 RELease GW 3 -> PBX C 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=REL 
    
    
   F23 200 OK GW 1 -> Proxy 1 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2 
    ;received=192.168.255.111 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw3.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuwq 
    ;received=192.168.255.203 
   From: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com>;tag=123456789 
   To: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F24 200 OK Proxy 1 -> GW 3 
    
   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw3.atlanta.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuwq 
    ;received=192.168.255.203 
   From: <sip:4443333@ss1.atlanta.com>;tag=123456789 
   To: <sip:551313@gw1.atlanta.com>;tag=63412s 
   Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@gw1.atlanta.com 
 
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   CSeq: 1 BYE 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
   F25 RELease COMplete PBX C -> GW 3 
    
   Protocol discriminator=Q.931 
   Message type=REL COM 
    
    
   PBX A -> GW 1 
    
   Seizure removal 
    
    
    
    



































 
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7 SIP Test Messages 
    
   The files in here are test messages for SIP servers to exercise 
   various functions. They have been used in SIPit 
   interoperablity events.  All messages shown here are valid, unless 
   otherwise noted.  The correct behavior of servers and clients is also 
   described. 
 
7.1 INVITE Parser Torture Test Message 
    
   This message is a correctly formatting SIP message. It contains: 
    
   line folding all over 
   escaped characters within quotes 
   LWS between colons, semicolons, headers, and other fields 
   both comma separated and separate listing of headers 
   mix or short and long form for the same header 
   unknown header field 
   unusual header ordering 
   unknown parameters of a known header 
    
   Proxies should forward message and clients should respond as to a 
   normal INVITE message. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:vivekg@chair.dnrc.bell-labs.com SIP/2.0 
   TO : 
    sip:vivekg@chair.dnrc.bell-labs.com ;   tag    = 1918181833n 
   From   : "J Rosenberg \\\"" <sip:jdrosen@lucent.com> 
     ; 
     tag = 98asjd8 
   Max-Forwards: 6 
   Call-ID 
    : 0ha0isndaksdj@10.1.1.1 
   cseq: 8 
     INVITE 
   Via  : SIP  /   2.0 
    /UDP 
       135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Subject : 
   NewFangledHeader:   newfangled value 
    more newfangled value 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   v:  SIP  / 2.0  / TCP     1192.168.156.222   ; 
     branch  =   9ikj8  , 
    SIP  /    2.0   / UDP  192.168.255.111   ; hidden 
   m:"Quoted string \"\"" <sip:jdrosen@bell-labs.com> ; newparam = 
   newvalue ; 
     secondparam = secondvalue  ; q = 0.33, 
    tel:4443322 
 
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   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
7.2 INVITE with Proxy-Require and Require 
    
   This message tests support for Proxy-Require and Require. It is a 
   request that contains both headers, listing new features. 
    
   Proxies and clients should respond with a 420 Bad Extension, and an 
   Unsupported header listing these features. 
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:j_user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=242etr 
   Max-Forward: 6 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.1.1.1 
   Require: newfeature1, newfeature2 
   Proxy-Require: newfeature3, newfeature4 
   CSeq: 8 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
    
    
7.3 INVITE with Unknown Schemes in URIs 
    
   This message contains unknown schemes in the Request URI, To, From 
   and Contact headers of a request. 
    
   A server should probably return a not found error; but other 
   behaviors are acceptable. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE name:John_Smith SIP/2.0 
   To: isbn:2983792873 
   From: <http://www.cs.columbia.edu>;tag=3234233 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.1.2.3 
   CSeq: 8 INVITE 
   Max-Forward: 7 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
    
 
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   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.4 REGISTER with Y2038 Test 
    
   This message is a registration request with an expiration year of 
   2040. This makes sure that a server doesn't crash on seeing a date 
   past Y2038. 
    
   The correct behavior is probably to limit the lifetime to some 
   configured maximum. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   REGISTER sip:company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   From: sip:user@company.com;tag=3411345 
   Max-Forwards: 8 
   Contact: sip:user@host.company.com 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 8 REGISTER 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Expires: Sat, 01 Dec 2040 16:00:00 GMT 
    
    
    
7.5 INVITE with inconsistent Accept and message body 
    
   This is a UAS test. It is a request that includes an Accept header 
   without SDP. The UAS should respond with an error. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:j_user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=234 
   Max-Forwards: 5 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.0.0.1 
   Accept: text/newformat 
   CSeq: 8 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
 
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   v=0 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.6 INVITE with non-SDP message body 
    
   This is a test of a user agent server. It is a request that includes 
   a body of a non-SDP type. 
    
   The user agent server should respond with an error. 
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@comapny.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:j.user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=8 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 8 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Type: application/newformat 
    
   <audio> 
    <pcmu port="443"/> 
   </audio> 
    
    
    
7.7 Unknown Method Message 
    
   This request message contains a new unknown method, NEWMETHOD. 
    
   A proxy should forward this using the same retransmission rules as 
   BYE. A UAS should reject it with an error, and list the available 
   methods in the response. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   NEWMETHOD sip:user@comapny.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:j.user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=34525 
   Max-Forwards: 6 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 8 NEWMETHOD 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
 
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   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.8 Unknown Method with CSeq Error 
    
   This message is nearly identical to the Unknown Method message. It is 
   a request with a new unknown method, but with a CSeq method tag which 
   does not match. 
    
   A proxy should either respond with an error, or correct the method 
   tag. The user agent should reject it with an error, and list the 
   available methods in the response. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   NEWMETHOD sip:user@comapny.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:j.user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=23411413 
   Max-Forwards: 3 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.0.1.1 
   CSeq: 8 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.9 REGISTER with Unknown Authorization Scheme 
    
   This message is a REGISTER request with an unknown authorization 
   scheme. 
    
    
   The server should do something reasonable, such as rejecting the 
   request. 
    
 
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   Message Details 
    
   REGISTER sip:company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:j.user@company.com 
   From: sip:j.user@company.com;tag=87321hj23128 
   Max-Forwards: 8 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.0.1.1 
   CSeq: 8 REGISTER 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Authorization: Super-PGP ajsohdaosdh0asyhdaind08yasdknasd09asidhas0d8 
    
    
    
7.10 Multiple SIP Request in a Single Message 
    
   This message contains two requests, separated by a bunch of 
   whitespace. Since the message exceeds the length indicated in the 
   Content-Length header, the message should be rejected. (Multiple SIP 
   requests per UDP packet are no longer allowed.)  
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   REGISTER sip:company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:j.user@company.com 
   From: sip:j.user@company.com;tag=43251j3j324 
   Max-Forwards: 8 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.0.2.2 
   Contact: sip:j.user@host.company.com 
   CSeq: 8 REGISTER 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Length: 0 
    
    
    
   INVITE sip:joe@company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:joe@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=141334 
   Max-Forwards: 8 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isnda977644900765@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 8 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m =video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
 
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   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.11 INVITE missing Required Headers 
    
   This message contains no Call-ID, From, or To header. 
    
   The server should not crash, and ideally should respond with an 
   error. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   CSeq: 0 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.12 INVITE with Duplicate Required Headers 
    
   The message contains a request with an extra Call-ID and To field. 
    
   The server should not crash, and should ideally respond with an 
   error. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   CSeq: 0 INVITE 
   Call-ID: 98asdh@10.1.1.1 
   Call-ID: 98asdh@10.1.1.2 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=3413415 
   From: sip:caller@organization.org 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
    
   v=0 
 
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   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.13 INVITE with Illegal Expires Header 
    
   This message contains an Expires header which has illegal values for 
   a number of components, but otherwise is syntactically correct. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Max-Forwards: 88 
   CSeq: 0 INVITE 
   Call-ID: 98asdh@10.1.1.2 
   Expires: Thu, 44 Dec 19999 16:00:00 EDT 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=3651 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.14 200 OK Response with Broadcast Via Header 
    
   This message is a response with a 2nd Via header of 255.255.255.255. 
    
   On receiving this response, the top Via header is stripped and the 
   packet forwarded.  Since the next address is the broadcast address, 
   it causes the packet to be broadcast onto the network. A smart server 
   should ignore packets with 2nd Via headers that are 255.255.255.255 
   or 127.0.0.1. At the very least it should not crash. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
 
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   SIP/2.0 200 OK 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.57;branch=0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 255.255.255.255;branch=0 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Call-ID: 0384840201@10.1.1.1 
   CSeq: 0 INVITE 
   From: sip:user@company.com;tag=11141343 
   To: sip:user@university.edu;tag=2229 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 224.2.17.12/127 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.15 INVITE with Invalid Via and Contact Headers 
    
   This is a request with the Via and Contact headers incorrect. They 
   contain additional semicolons and commas without parameters or 
   values. 
    
   The server should respond with a Bad Request error. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:j.user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=134161461246 
   Max-Forwards: 7 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 8 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;;,; 
   Contact: "" <> ;,"Joe" <sip:joe@org.org>;;,,;; 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
 
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7.16 INVITE with Incorrect Content-Length Header 
    
   This is a request message with a Content Length that is much larger 
   than the length of the body. 
    
   When sent UDP, the server should respond with an error. With TCP, 
   there's not much you can do but wait... 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   Max-Forwards: 80 
   To: sip:j.user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=93942939o2 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 8 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 9999 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.17 INVITE with Invalid Value for Content-Length 
    
   This is a request message with a negative value for Content-Length. 
    
   The server should respond with an error. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   Max-Forwards: 254 
   To: sip:j.user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=3 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 8 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: -999 
    
 
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   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.18 INVITE with Garbage after Message Body 
    
    
   This is a request message with garbage after the end of the SDP 
   included in the body.  
    
   The servers should reject the request as the body is longer than the  
   Content-Length. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:j.user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=3223 
   Max-Forwards: 7 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 8 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 138 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
   asdpasd08asdsdk:;;asd 
    a0sdjhg8a0''...'';;;; 
    
    
    
7.19 INVITE with Error in Display Name in To Header 
    
   This is a request with an unterminated quote in the display name of 
   the To field. 
    
   The server can either return an error, or proxy it if it is 
 
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   successful parsing without the terminating quote. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: "Mr. J. User <sip:j.user@company.com> 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=93334 
   Max-Forwards: 10 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 8 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133:5050;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 138 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.20 INVITE with a Semicolon-Separated Parameter in the "user" Part 
    
   This is an INVITE request with a semicolon-separated parameter in  
   the "user" part.  
    
   Outbound proxies should direct it appropriately.  
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user;par=u%40h.com@company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:j_user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=33242 
   Max-Forwards: 3 
   Call-ID: 0ha0isndaksdj@10.1.1.1 
   CSeq: 8 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
    
    
    
7.21 INVITE with Illegal Enclosing of Request-URI  in "<>" 
    
   This INVITE is illegal because the Request-URI has been enclosed 
   within in "<>". 
    
   An intelligent server may be able to deal with this and fix up  
 
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   athe Request-URI if acting as a Proxy. If not it should respond 400 
   with an appropriate reason phrase. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE <sip:user@company.com> SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=39291 
   Max-Forwards: 23 
   Call-ID: 1@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 174 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=3149328700 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.22 INVITE with Illegal LWS within Elements of Request-URI  
    
   This INVITE has illegal LWS within the SIP URI. 
    
   An intelligent server may be able to deal with this and fix up  
   the Request-URI if acting as a Proxy. If not it should respond 400 
   with an appropriate reason phrase. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com; transport=udp SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=231413434 
   Max-Forwards: 5 
   Call-ID: 2@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 174 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
 
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   t=3149328700 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.23 INVITE with illegal >1 SP between elements of Request URI  
    
   This INVITE has illegal >1 SP between elements of the Request-URI. 
    
   An intelligent server may be able to deal with this and fix up  
   the Request-URI if acting as a Proxy. If not it should respond 400 
   with an appropriate reason phrase. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com  SIP/2.0 
   Max-Forwards: 8 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=8814 
   Call-ID: 3@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 174 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.24 INVITE with a legal SIP URI containing escaped characters 
    
   This INVITE is legal and has a Request-URI with a SIP URI containing 
   escaped characters. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:sip%3Auser%40example.com@company.com;other-param=summit 
   SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=938 
   Max-Forwards: 87 
 
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   Call-ID: 4@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 174 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.25 INVITE with the illegal use of escaped headers in Request-URI 
    
   This INVITE is illegal as it the Request-URI contains a SIP URI 
   containing 
   escaped headers.  
    
   An intelligent server may be liberal enough to accept this. A server 
   acting as a proxy should remove the escaped header before processing. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com?Route=%3Csip:sip.example.com%3E SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=341518 
   Max-Forwards: 7 
   Call-ID: 5@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 174 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.26 INVITE containing an unknown scheme in the Request URI 
    
 
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   This INVITE contains an unknown URI scheme in the Request-URI. 
    
   A server should reject this message with a 400 response plus an  
   appropriate reason phrase despite being able to understand the 
   To header as a SIP URI. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE name:user SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=384 
   Max-Forwards: 3 
   Call-ID: 6@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 174 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.27 OPTIONS with no LWS between display name and < 
    
   This OPTIONS request is legal despite there being no LWS between 
   the display name and < in the From header. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   OPTIONS sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   From: "caller"<sip:caller@example.com>;tag=323 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Call-ID: 1234abcd@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 1 OPTIONS 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
    
    
7.28 OPTIONS with extran LWS between display name and < 
    
   This OPTIONS request is legal despite there being extra LWS between 
   the display name and < in the From header. 
    
 
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   Message Details 
    
   OPTIONS sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   From: "caller"    <sip:caller@example.com>;tag=32 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Call-ID: 1234abcd@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 2 OPTIONS 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
    
    
    
7.29 INVITE with an illegal SIP Date format. 
    
   This INVITE is illegal as it contains a non GMT time zone in the SIP 
   Date header. 
    
   An intelligent server may be able to fix this up and correct the time 
   to GMT. Alternatively this message may illicit a 400 response with an 
   appropriate reason phrase. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=2 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Call-ID: 7@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Date: Fri, 01 Jan 2010 16:00:00 EST 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 174 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.30 INVITE with Passed Expries Time 
    
   This is a legal INVITE but the message content has long since 
   expired. 
    
 
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   A server should respond 408 (Timeout). 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=3843 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Call-ID: 8@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Expires: Thu, 01 Dec 1994 16:00:00 GMT 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 174 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.31 INVITE with Max-Forwards Set to Zero 
    
   This is a legal SIP request with the Max-Forwards header set to zero. 
    
   A proxy or gateway should not forward the request and respond 483 
   (Too Many Hops). 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=3ghsd41 
   Call-ID: 9@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Max-Forwards: 0 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 174 
    
   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
 
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   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.32 REGISTER with a Escaped Header in a Legal SIP URI of a Contact 
    
    
   This is a legal REGISTER message where the Contact header contains a  
   SIP URI with an escaped header within it. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   REGISTER sip:company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   From: sip:user@company.com;tag=8 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Contact: sip:user@host.company.com 
   Call-ID: k345asrl3fdbv@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Contact: <sip:user@example.com?Route=%3Csip:sip.example.com%3E> 
    
    
    
7.33 REGISTER with a Escaped Header in a Illegal SIP URI of a Contact 
    
   This is an illegal message as the REGISTER request contains a SIP 
   URI with an escaped header but it is not enclosed in  <> 
    
   A server should respond 400 with an appropriate reason phrase. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   REGISTER sip:company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: sip:user@company.com 
   From: sip:user@company.com;tag=998332 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   Contact: sip:user@host.company.com 
   Call-ID: k345asrl3fdbv@10.0.0.1 
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 135.180.130.133:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Contact: sip:user@example.com?Route=%3Csip:sip.example.com%3E 
    
    
    
7.34 INVITE with Long Values in Headers 
    
   This is a legal message that contains long values in many headers. 
 
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   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:user@company.com SIP/2.0 
   To: "I have a user name of extreme proportion" 
   <sip:user@company.com:6000;other-
   param=1234567890somethingelselong1234567890> 
   From: sip:caller@university.edu;tag=12481841982424 
   Call-ID: 
   kl24ahsd546folnyt2vbak9sad98u23naodiunzds09a3bqw0sdfbsk34poouymnae004
   3nsed09mfkvc74bd0cuwnms05dknw87hjpobd76f 
   CSeq: 1 INVITE 
   P-My-State: sldkjflzdsfaret0803adgaasd0afds0asdaasd 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip33.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip32.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip31.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip30.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip29.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip28.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip27.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip26.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip25.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip24.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip23.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip22.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip21.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip20.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip19.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip18.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip17.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip16.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip15.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip14.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip13.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip12.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip11.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip10.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip9.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip8.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip7.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip6.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip5.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip4.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip3.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip2.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP sip1.example.com 
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 
   host.example.com;received=135.180.130.133;branch=C1C3344E2710000000E2
   99E568E7potato10potato0potato0 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
    
 
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   v=0 
   o=mhandley 29739 7272939 IN IP4 126.5.4.3 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 135.180.130.88 
   t=0 0 
   m=audio 492170 RTP/AVP 0 12 
   m=video 3227 RTP/AVP 31 
   a=rtpmap:31 LPC 
    
    
    
7.35 OPTIONS with multiple headers. 
    
   This is an illegal and badly mangled message. 
    
   A server should respond 400 with an appropriate reason phrase if it 
   can. It may just drop this message. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   OPTIONS sip:135.180.130.133 SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP company.com:5604 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: sip:iuser@company.com;tag=74345345 
   To: sip:user@135.180.130.133 
   Call-ID: 1804928587@company.com 
   CSeq: 1 OPTIONS 
   Expires: 0 0l@company.com 
   To: sip:user@135.180.130.133 
   Call-ID: 1804928587@company.com 
   CSeq: 1 OPTIONS 
   Contact: sip:host.company.com 
   Expires: 0xpires: 0sip:host.company.com 
   Expires: 0 
   Contact: sip:host.company.com 
    
    
    
7.36 INVITE with large number of SDP attributes and telephone subscriber 
Request-URI 
    
   This is a legal message with a large number of SDP attributes and a 
   long telephone subscriber Request-URI 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:+19725552222;phone-
   context=name%40domain;new=user?%22Route%3a%20X%40Y%3bZ=W%22@gw1.atlan
   ta.com;user=phone SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP iftgw.biloxi.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKjeefr3 
 
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   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: 
   <sip:+13035551111@ift.client.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=332lflke 
   To: sip:+16555552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone 
   Call-ID: 1717@ift.client.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 56 INVITE 
   Content-Type: application/sdp 
   Content-Length: 320 
    
   v=0 
   o=faxgw1 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 iftgw.biloxi.com 
   s=- 
   c=IN IP4 iftmg.biloxi.com 
   t=0 0 
   m=image 49172 udptl t38 
   a=T38FaxVersion:0 
   a=T38maxBitRate:14400 
   a=T38FaxFillBitRemoval:0 
   a=T38FaxTranscodingMMR:0 
   a=T38FaxTranscodingJBIG:0 
   a=T38FaxRateManagement:transferredTCF 
   a=T38FaxMaxBuffer:260 
   a=T38FaxUdpEC:t38UDPR 
    
    
    
7.37 REGISTER with a contact parameter. 
    
   This REGISTER contains a contact where the 'user' parameter should be 
   interpreted as being a contact-param and not a url-param. 
    
   The register should succeed but a subsequent retrieval of the 
   registration must not include "user=phone" as a url-parameter. 
    
   Message Details 
    
   REGISTER sip:bell-tel.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP saturn.bell-tel.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: sip:watson@bell-tel.com;tag=DkfVgjkrtMwaerKKpe 
   To: sip:watson@bell-tel.com 
   Call-ID: 70710@saturn.bell-tel.com 
   CSeq: 2 REGISTER 
   Contact: sip:+19725552222@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone 
    
    
    
7.38 REGISTER with a url parameter. 
    
   This register contains a contact where the 'user'parameter is a url-
   param. 
    
 
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   The register should succeed and a subsequent retrieval of the 
   registration must 
   include "user=phone" as a url-parameter. 
    
   Message Details  
    
   REGISTER sip:bell-tel.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP saturn.bell-tel.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Max-Forwards: 70 
   From: sip:watson@bell-tel.com;tag=838293 
   To: sip:watson@bell-tel.com 
   Call-ID: 70710@saturn.bell-tel.com 
   CSeq: 3 REGISTER 
   Contact: <sip:+19725552222@gw1.atlanta.com;user=phone> 
    
    
    
7.39 INVITE with an Unquoted Display Name Containing Multiple Tokens 
    
   This is a legal INVITE where the To and From header contain display 
   names that contain multiple tokens but are unquoted. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:t.watson@ieee.org SIP/2.0 
   Via:     SIP/2.0/UDP c.bell-tel.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Max-Forwards:    70 
   From:    A. Bell <sip:a.g.bell@bell-tel.com>;tag=459843 
   To:      T. Watson <sip:t.watson@ieee.org> 
   Call-ID: 31414@c.bell-tel.com 
   CSeq:    1 INVITE 
    
    
    
7.40 INVITE with an Unquoted Display Name Containg Non-Token Characters 
    
   This is an illegal invite at the display names in the To and From 
   headers contain non-token characters but are unquoted. 
    
   A server may be intelligent enough to cope with this but may also 
   return a 400 response with an appropriate reason phrase. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:t.watson@ieee.org SIP/2.0 
   Via:     SIP/2.0/UDP c.bell-tel.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Max-Forwards:      70 
   From:    Bell, Alexander <sip:a.g.bell@bell-tel.com>;tag=43 
   To:      Watson, Thomas <sip:t.watson@ieee.org> 
   Call-ID: 31415@c.bell-tel.com 
 
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   CSeq:    1 INVITE 
    
    
    
7.41 INVITE with Unknown (Higher) Protocol Version in Start Line 
    
   This is an illegal INVITE as the SIP Protocol version is unknown.  
    
   The server should respond to the request with a bad version error. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:t.watson@ieee.org SIP/7.0 
   Via:     SIP/2.0/UDP c.bell-tel.com;branch=z9hG4bKkdjuw 
   Max-Forwards:     70 
   From:    A. Bell <sip:a.g.bell@bell-tel.com>;tag=qweoiqpe 
   To:      T. Watson <sip:t.watson@ieee.org> 
   Call-ID: 31417@c.bell-tel.com 
   CSeq:    1 INVITE 
    
    
7.42 INVITE with RFC2543 syntax 
    
   This is a legal message per RFC 2543 which should be accepted by RFC 
   3261 elements which want to maintain backwards compatibility. 
    
    
   Message Details 
    
   INVITE sip:UserB@biloxi.com SIP/2.0 
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP iftgw.biloxi.com 
   From: <sip:+13035551111@ift.client.atlanta.com;user=phone>;tag=93752 
   Record-Route: <sip:UserB@biloxi.com;maddr=ss1.wcom.com> 
   To: sip:+16505552222@ss1.atlanta.com;user=phone 
   Call-ID: 1717@ift.client.atlanta.com 
   CSeq: 56 INVITE 
    
    
    
8  Security Considerations 
 
   Since this document represents NON NORMATIVE examples of SIP session 
   establishment and interworking between SIP and the PSTN, the security 
   considerations in RFC 3261 [RFC3261] and [SIP-ISUP] apply. 
    
 
 
9  IANA Considerations 
 
   None. 
 
 
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10 Acknowledgements 
    
   Thanks to Rohan Mahy, Adam Roach, Gonzalo Camarillo, Cullen Jennings, 
   and Tom Taylor for their detailed comments during the final final 
   review. 
    
   The authors wish to thank Neil Deason for his additions to the 
   Torture Test messages and Kundan Singh for performing parser 
   validation of messages.  
    
   The authors wish to thank the following individuals for their 
   participation in the final review of this call flows document: Aseem 
   Agarwal, Rafi Assadi, Ben Campbell, Sunitha Kumar, Jon Peterson, Marc 
   Petit-Huguenin, Vidhi Rastogi, and Bodgey Yin Shaohua.   
    
   The authors also wish to thank the following individuals for their 
   assistance: Jean-Francois Mule, Hemant Agrawal, Henry Sinnreich, 
   David Devanatham, Joe Pizzimenti, Matt Cannon, John Hearty, the whole 
   MCI WorldCom IPOP Design team, Scott Orton, Greg Osterhout, Pat 
   Sollee, Doug Weisenberg, Danny Mistry, Steve McKinnon, and Denise 
   Ingram, Denise Caballero, Tom Redman, Ilya Slain, Pat Sollee, John 
   Truetken, and others from MCI WorldCom, 3Com, Cisco, Lucent and 
   Nortel. 
    
    
11 References 
    
   [RFC3261] J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, 
    J. Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, and E. Schooler, "SIP: 
    Session Initiation Protocol", Internet Engineering Task Force,  
    Work in Progress. 
    
   [RFC2617] Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S.,  
    Leach, P., Luotonen, A. and L. Stewart, "HTTP authentication: 
    Basic and Digest Access Authentication", RFC 2617, June 1999. 
    
   [RFC3264] J.Rosenberg and H.Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model 
    with SDP", Internet Engineering Task Force, RFC 3264, April 2002. 
    
   [RFC2401] S. Kent, R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the 
    Internet Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998. 
    
   [RFC2246] Dierks, T. and C. Allen, "The TLS Protocol Version 1.0",  
    RFC 2246, January 1999. 
    
   [RFC2806] A. Vaha-Sipila, "URLs for Telephone Calls", Internet Draft, 
    Internet Engineering Task Force, RFC 2806, April 2000. 
    
   [SIP-ISUP] G. Camarillo, "Best Current Practice for ISUP to SIP 
    Mapping", Internet Draft, Internet Engineering Task Force,  
    Work in progress. 
 
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Author's Addresses 
    
   All listed authors actively contributed large amounts of text to this 
   document. 
    
      Alan Johnston 
      WorldCom 
      100 South 4th Street 
      St. Louis, MO 63102 
      USA 
    
      EMail:  alan.johnston@wcom.com 
    
    
      Steve Donovan 
      dynamicsoft, Inc. 
      5100 Tennyson Parkway 
      Suite 1200 
      Plano, Texas 75024 
      USA 
    
      EMail:  sdonovan@dynamicsoft.com 
    
    
      Robert Sparks 
      dynamicsoft, Inc. 
      5100 Tennyson Parkway 
      Suite 1200 
      Plano, Texas 75024 
      USA 
    
      EMail:  rsparks@dynamicsoft.com 
    
      Chris Cunningham 
      dynamicsoft, Inc. 
      5100 Tennyson Parkway 
      Suite 1200 
      Plano, Texas 75024 
      USA 
    
      EMail: ccunningham@dynamicsoft.com 
    
       
      Dean Willis 
      dynamicsoft, Inc. 
      5100 Tennyson Parkway 
      Suite 1200 
      Plano, Texas 75024 
      USA 
    
      Email: dwillis@dynamicsoft.com 
 
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      Jonathan Rosenberg 
      dynamicsoft 
      72 Eagle Rock Ave 
      East Hanover, NJ 07936 
      USA 
    
      EMail:  jdrosen@dynamicsoft.com 
    
    
      Kevin Summers 
      Sonus 
      1701 North Collins Blvd, Suite 3000 
      Richardson, TX 75080 
      USA 
    
      Email: kevin.summers@sonusnet.com 
    
    
      Henning Schulzrinne 
      Dept. of Computer Science 
      Columbia University 
      1214 Amsterdam Avenue 
      New York, NY 10027 
      USA 
    
      EMail:  schulzrinne@cs.columbia.edu 
    
    
 
    
    
    
   Copyright Notice 
    
   "Copyright (C) The Internet Society 2002. All Rights Reserved. 
    
   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to 
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it 
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published 
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any 
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are 
   included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this 
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing 
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other 
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of 
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for 
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be 
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than 
   English. 
    
 
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   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be 
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns. 
    
   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an 
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING 
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING 
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION 
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF 
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. 
    
 
Acknowledgement 
 
   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the 
   Internet Society. 
    




































 
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