Internet DRAFT - draft-vixie-htcp-proto

draft-vixie-htcp-proto



   ICP Working Group                                            Paul Vixie
   INTERNET-DRAFT                                                      ISC
   <draft-vixie-htcp-proto-05.txt>                           Duane Wessels
                                                                     NLANR
                                                              August, 1999

                    Hyper Text Caching Protocol (HTCP/0.0)

   Status of this Memo

      This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
      all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

      Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
      Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
      other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
      Drafts.

      Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
      and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
      time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
      material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

      The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
      http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

      The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
      http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   Abstract

      This document describes HTCP, a protocol for discovering HTTP caches
      and cached data, managing sets of HTTP caches, and monitoring cache
      activity.  This is an experimental protocol, one among several
      proposals to perform these functions.

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   1 - Definitions, Rationale and Scope

   1.1. HTTP/1.1 (see [RFC2068]) permits the transfer of web objects from
   ``origin servers'', possibly via ``proxies'' (which are allowed under
   some circumstances to ``cache'' such objects for subsequent reuse) to
   ``clients'' which consume the object in some way, usually by displaying
   it as part of a ``web page.''  HTTP/1.0 and later permit ``headers'' to
   be included in a request and/or a response, thus expanding upon the
   HTTP/0.9 (and earlier) behaviour of specifying only a URI in the request
   and offering only a body in the response.

   1.2. ICP (see [RFC2186]) permits caches to be queried as to their
   content, usually by other caches who are hoping to avoid an expensive
   fetch from a distant origin server.  ICP was designed with HTTP/0.9 in
   mind, such that only the URI (without any headers) is used when
   describing cached content, and the possibility of multiple compatible
   bodies for the same URI had not yet been imagined.

   1.3. This document specifies a Hyper Text Caching Protocol (HTCP or
   simply HoT CraP) which permits full request and response headers to be
   used in cache management, and expands the domain of cache management to
   include monitoring a remote cache's additions and deletions, requesting
   immediate deletions, and sending hints about web objects such as the
   third party locations of cacheable objects or the measured
   uncacheability or unavailability of web objects.

   2 - HTCP Protocol

   2.1. All multi-octet HTCP protocol elements are transmitted in network
   byte order.  All RESERVED fields should be set to binary zero by senders
   and left unexamined by receivers.  Headers must be presented with the
   CRLF line termination, as in HTTP.

   2.2. Any hostnames specified should be compatible between sender and
   receiver, such that if a private naming scheme (such as HOSTS.TXT or
   NIS) is in use, names depending on such schemes will only be sent to
   HTCP neighbors who are known to participate in said schemes.  Raw
   addresses (dotted quad IPv4, or colon-format IPv6) are universal, as are
   public DNS names.  Use of private names or addresses will require
   special operational care.

   2.3. UDP must be supported.  HTCP agents must not be isolated from
   NETWORK failures and delays.  An HTCP agent should be prepared to act in
   useful ways when no response is forthcoming, or when responses are
   delayed or reordered or damaged.  TCP is optional and is expected to be

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   used only for protocol debugging.  The IANA has assigned port 4827 as
   the standard TCP and UDP port number for HTCP.

   2.4. A set of configuration variables concerning transport
   characteristics should be maintained for each agent which is capable of
   initiating HTCP transactions, perhaps with a set of per-agent global
   defaults.  These variables are:

      Maximum number of unacknowledged transactions before a ``failure'' is
      imputed.

      Maximum interval without a response to some transaction before a
      ``failure'' is imputed.

      Should ICMP-Portunreach be treated as a failure?

      Should RESPONSE=5 && MO=1 be treated as a failure?

      Minimum interval before trying a new transaction after a failure

   2.5. An HTCP Message has the following general format:

      +---------------------+
      |        HEADER       | tells message length and protocol versions
      +---------------------+
      |         DATA        | HTCP message (varies per major version number)
      +---------------------+
      |         AUTH        | optional authentication for transaction
      +---------------------+

   2.6. An HTCP/*.* HEADER has the following format:

                    +0 (MSB)                            +1 (LSB)
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      0: |                             LENGTH                            |
         +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +
      2: |                             LENGTH                            |
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      2: |             MAJOR             |             MINOR             |
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

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   LENGTH  is the message length, inclusive of all header and data octets,
           including the LENGTH field itself.  This field will be equal to
           the datagam payload size (``record length'') if a datagram
           protocol is in use, and can include padding, i.e., not all
           octets of the message need be used in the DATA and AUTH
           sections.

   MAJOR   is the major version number (0 for this specification).  The
           DATA section of an HTCP message need not be upward or downward
           compatble between different major version numbers.

   MINOR   is the minor version number (0 for this specification).  Feature
           levels and interpretation rules can vary depending on this
           field, in particular RESERVED fields can take on new (though
           optional) meaning in successive minor version numbers within the
           same major version number.

   2.6.1. It is expected that an HTCP initiator will know the version
   number of a prospective HTCP responder, or that the initiator will probe
   using declining values for MINOR and MAJOR (beginning with the highest
   locally supported value) and locally cache the probed version number of
   the responder.

   2.6.2. Higher MAJOR numbers are to be preferred, as are higher MINOR
   numbers within a particular MAJOR number.

   2.7. An HTCP/0.* DATA has the following structure:

                    +0 (MSB)                            +1 (LSB)
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      0: |                             LENGTH                            |
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      2: |    OPCODE     |   RESPONSE    |        RESERVED       |F1 |RR |
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      4: |                           TRANS-ID                            |
         +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +
      6: |                           TRANS-ID                            |
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      8: |                                                               |
         /                            OP-DATA                            /
         /                                                               /
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

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   LENGTH    is the number of octets of the message which are reserved for
             the DATA section, including the LENGTH field itself.  This
             number can include padding, i.e., not all octets reserved by
             LENGTH need be used in OP-DATA.

   OPCODE    is the operation code of an HTCP transaction.  An HTCP
             transaction can consist of multiple HTCP messages, e.g., a
             request (sent by the initiator), or a response (sent by the
             responder).

   RESPONSE  is a numeric code indicating the success or failure of a
             transaction.  It should be set to zero (0) by requestors and
             ignored by responders.  Each operation has its own set of
             response codes, which are described later.  The overall
             message has a set of response codes which are as follows:

             0   authentication wasn't used but is required
             1   authentication was used but unsatisfactorily
             2   opcode not implemented
             3   major version not supported
             4   minor version not supported (major version is ok)
             5   inappropriate, disallowed, or undesirable opcode

             The above response codes all indicate errors and all depend
             for their visibility on MO=1 (as specified below).

   RR        is a flag indicating whether this message is a request (0) or
             response (1).

   F1        is overloaded such that it is used differently by requestors
             than by responders.  If RR=0, then F1 is defined as RD.  If
             RR=1, then F1 is defined as MO.

   RD        is a flag which if set to 1 means that a response is desired.
             Some OPCODEs require RD to be set to 1 to be meaningful.

   MO        (em-oh) is a flag which indicates whether the RESPONSE code is
             to be interpreted as a response to the overall message (fixed
             fields in DATA or any field of AUTH) [MO=1] or as a response
             to fields in the OP-DATA [MO=0].

   TRANS-ID  is a 32-bit value which when combined with the initiator's
             network address, uniquely identifies this HTCP transaction.
             Care should be taken not to reuse TRANS-ID's within the life-
             time of a UDP datagram.

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   OP-DATA   is opcode-dependent and is defined below, per opcode.

   2.8. An HTCP/0.0 AUTH has the following structure:

                    +0 (MSB)                            +1 (LSB)
          +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
       0: |                             LENGTH                            |
          +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
       2: |                            SIG-TIME                           |
          +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +
       4: |                            SIG-TIME                           |
          +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
       6: |                           SIG-EXPIRE                          |
          +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +
       8: |                           SIG-EXPIRE                          |
          +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      10: |                                                               |
          /                            KEY-NAME                           /
          /                                                               /
          +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
       n: |                                                               |
          /                            SIGNATURE                          /
          /                                                               /
          +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

   LENGTH      is the number of octets used by the AUTH, including the
               LENGTH field itself.  If the optional AUTH is not being
               transmitted, this field should be set to 2 (two).  LENGTH
               can include padding, which means that not all octets
               reserved by LENGTH will necessarily be consumed by
               SIGNATURE.

   SIG-TIME    is an unsigned binary count of the number of seconds since
               00:00:00 1-Jan-70 UTC at the time the SIGNATURE is
               generated.

   SIG-EXPIRE  is an unsigned binary count of the number of seconds since
               00:00:00 1-Jan-70 UTC at the time the SIGNATURE is
               considered to have expired.

   KEY-NAME    is a COUNTSTR [3.1] which specifies the name of a shared
               secret.  (Each HTCP implementation is expected to allow
               configuration of several shared secrets, each of which will
               have a name.)

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   SIGNATURE   is a COUNTSTR [3.1] which holds the HMAC-MD5 digest (see
               [RFC 2104]), with a B value of 64, of the following
               elements, each of which is digested in its ``on the wire''
               format, including transmitted padding if any is covered by a
               field's associated LENGTH:

               IP SRC ADDR                           [4 octets]
               IP SRC PORT                           [2 octets]
               IP DST ADDR                           [4 octets]
               IP DST PORT                           [2 octets]
               HTCP MAJOR version number             [1 octet]
               HTCP MINOR version number             [1 octet]
               SIG-TIME                              [4 octets]
               SIG-EXPIRE                            [4 octets]
               HTCP DATA                             [variable]
               KEY-NAME (the whole COUNTSTR [3.1])   [variable]

   2.8.1. Shared secrets should be cryptorandomly generated and should be
   at least a few hundred octets in size.

   3 - Data Types

   HTCP/0.* data types are defined as follows:

   3.1. COUNTSTR is a counted string whose format is:

                    +0 (MSB)                            +1 (LSB)
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      0: |                             LENGTH                            |
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      2: |                                                               |
         /                              TEXT                             /
         /                                                               /
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

   LENGTH  is the number of octets which will follow in TEXT.  This field
           is *not* self-inclusive as is the case with other HTCP LENGTH
           fields.

   TEXT    is a stream of uninterpreted octets, usually ISO8859-1
           ``characters''.

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   3.2. SPECIFIER is used with the TST and CLR request messages, defined
   below.  Its format is:

      +---------------------+
      |        METHOD       | : COUNTSTR
      +---------------------+
      |         URI         | : COUNTSTR
      +---------------------+
      |       VERSION       | : COUNTSTR
      +---------------------+
      |       REQ-HDRS      | : COUNTSTR
      +---------------------+

   METHOD    (Since HTCP only returns headers, methods GET and HEAD are
             equivilent.)

   URI       (If the URI is a URL, it should always include a ``:''<port>
             specifier, but in its absense, port 80 should be imputed by a
             receiver.)

   VERSION   is an entire HTTP version string such as ``HTTP/1.1''.
             VERSION strings with prefixes other than ``HTTP/'' or with
             version numbers less than ``1.1'' are outside the domain of
             this specification.

   REQ-HDRS  are those presented by an HTTP initiator.  These headers
             should include end-to-end but NOT hop-by-hop headers, and they
             can be canonicalized (aggregation of ``Accept:'' is permitted,
             for example.)

   3.3. DETAIL is used with the TST response message, defined below.  Its
   format is:

      +---------------------+
      |      RESP-HDRS      | : COUNTSTR
      +---------------------+
      |     ENTITY-HDRS     | : COUNTSTR
      +---------------------+
      |     CACHE-HDRS      | : COUNTSTR
      +---------------------+

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   3.4. IDENTITY is used with the MON request and SET response message,
   defined below.  Its format is:

      +---------------------+
      |      SPECIFIER      |
      +---------------------+
      |        DETAIL       |
      +---------------------+

   4 - Cache Headers

   HTCP/0.0 CACHE-HDRS consist of zero or more of the following headers:

   Cache-Vary: <header-name> ...
      The sender of this header has learned that content varies on a set of
      headers different from the set given in the object's Vary: header.
      Cache-Vary:, if present, overrides the object's Vary: header.

   Cache-Location: <cache-hostname>:<port> ...
      The sender of this header has learned of one or more proxy caches who
      are holding a copy of this object.  Probing these caches with HTCP
      may result in discovery of new, close-by (preferrable to current)
      HTCP neighbors.

   Cache-Policy: [no-cache] [no-share] [no-cache-cookie]
      The sender of this header has learned that the object's caching
      policy has more detail than is given in its response headers.

      no-cache          means that it is uncacheable (no reason given),
                        but may be shareable between simultaneous
                        requestors.

      no-share          means that it is unshareable (no reason given),
                        and per-requestor tunnelling is always required).

      no-cache-cookie   means that the content could change as a result of
                        different, missing, or even random cookies being
                        included in the request headers, and that caching
                        is inadvisable.

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   Cache-Flags: [incomplete]
      The sender of this header has modified the object's caching policy
      locally, such that requesters may need to treat this response
      specially, i.e., not necessarily in accordance with the object's
      actual policy.

      incomplete   means that the response headers and/or entity
                   headers given in this response are not known to be
                   complete, and may not be suitable for use as a
                   cache key.

   Cache-Expiry: <date>
      The sender of this header has learned that this object should be
      considered to have expired at a time different than that indicate by
      its response headers.  The format is the same as HTTP/1.1 Expires:.

   Cache-MD5: <discovered content MD5>
      The sender of this header has computed an MD5 checksum for this
      object which is either different from that given in the object's
      Content-MD5:  header, or is being supplied since the object has no
      Content-MD5 header.  The format is the same as HTTP/1.1 Content-MD5:.

   Cache-to-Origin: <origin> <rtt> <samples> <hops>
      The sender of this header has measured the round trip time to an
      origin server (given as a hostname or literal address).  The <rtt> is
      the average number of seconds, expressed as decimal ASCII with
      arbitrary precision and no exponent.  <Samples> is the number of RTT
      samples which have had input to this average.  <Hops> is the number
      of routers between the cache and the origin, expressed as decimal
      ASCII with arbitrary precision and no exponent, or 0 if the cache
      doesn't know.

   6 - HTCP Operations

   HTCP/0.* opcodes and their respective OP-DATA are defined below:

   6.1. NOP (OPCODE 0):

   This is an HTCP-level ``ping.''  Responders are encouraged to process
   NOP's with minimum delay since the requestor may be using the NOP RTT
   (round trip time) for configuration or mapping purposes.  The RESPONSE
   code for a NOP is always zero (0).  There is no OP-DATA for a NOP.  NOP
   requests with RD=0 cause no processing to occur at all.

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   6.2. TST (OPCODE 1):

   Test for the presence of a specified content entity in a proxy cache.
   TST requests with RD=0 cause no processing to occur at all.

   TST requests have the following OP-DATA:

                    +0 (MSB)                            +1 (LSB)
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      0: |                                                               |
         /                          SPECIFIER                            /
         /                                                               /
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

   RESPONSE codes for TST are as follows:

   0   entity is present in responder's cache
   1   entity is not present in responder's cache

   TST responses have the following OP-DATA, if RESPONSE is zero (0):

                    +0 (MSB)                            +1 (LSB)
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      0: |                                                               |
         /                             DETAIL                            /
         /                                                               /
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

   Note:  The response headers returned by a positive TST can be of a stale
          object.  Requestors should be prepared to cope with this
          condition, either by using the responder as a source for this
          object (which could cause the responder to simply refresh it) or
          by choosing a different responder.

   TST responses have the following OP-DATA, if RESPONSE is one (1):

                    +0 (MSB)                            +1 (LSB)
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      0: |                                                               |
         /                           CACHE-HDRS                          /
         /                                                               /
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

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   6.3. MON (OPCODE 2):

   Monitor activity in a proxy cache's local object store (adds, deletes,
   replacements, etc).  Since interleaving of HTCP transaction over a
   single pair of UDP endpoints is not supported, it is recommended that a
   unique UDP endpoint be allocated by the requestor for each concurrent
   MON request.  MON requests with RD=0 are equivilent to those with RD=1
   and TIME=0; that is, they will cancel any outstanding MON transaction.

   MON requests have the following OP-DATA structure:

                     +0 (MSB)
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      0: |             TIME              |
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

   TIME  is the number of seconds of monitoring output desired by the
         initiator.  Subsequent MON requests from the same initiator with
         the same TRANS-ID should update the time on a ongoing MON
         transaction.  This is called ``overlapping renew.''

   RESPONSE codes for MON are as follows:

   0   accepted, OP-DATA is present and valid
   1   refused (quota error -- too many MON's are active)

   MON responses have the following OP-DATA structure, if RESPONSE is zero
   (0):

                    +0 (MSB)                            +1 (LSB)
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      0: |             TIME              |     ACTION    |     REASON    |
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      2: |                                                               |
         /                            IDENTITY                           /
         /                                                               /
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

   TIME      is the number of seconds remaining for this MON transaction.

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   ACTION    is a numeric code indicating a cache population action.  Codes
             are:

             0   an entity has been added to the cache
             1   an entity in the cache has been refreshed
             2   an entity in the cache has been replaced
             3   an entity in the cache has been deleted

   REASON    is a numeric code indicating the reason for an ACTION.  Codes
             are:

             0   some reason not covered by the other REASON codes
             1   a proxy client fetched this entity
             2   a proxy client fetched with caching disallowed
             3   the proxy server prefetched this entity
             4   the entity expired, per its headers
             5   the entity was purged due to caching storage limits

   6.4. SET (OPCODE 3):

   Inform a cache of the identity of an object.  This is a ``push''
   transaction, whereby cooperating caches can share information such as
   updated Age/Date/Expires headers (which might result from an origin
   ``304 Not modified'' HTTP response) or updated cache headers (which
   might result from the discovery of non-authoritative ``vary'' conditions
   or from learning of second or third party cache locations for this
   entity.  RD is honoured.

   SET requests have the following OP-DATA structure:

         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      0: |                                                               |
         /                            IDENTITY                           /
         /                                                               /
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

   RESPONSE  codes are as follows:

             0   identity accepted, thank you
             1   identity ignored, no reason given, thank you

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   SET responses have no OP-DATA.

   6.5. CLR (OPCODE 4):

   Tell a cache to completely forget about an entity.  RD is honoured.

   CLR requests have the following OP-DATA structure:

         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      0: |                   RESERVED                    |     REASON    |
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      2: |                                                               |
         /                           SPECIFIER                           /
         /                                                               /
         +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

   REASON    is a numeric code indicating the reason why the requestor is
             asking that this entity be removed.  The codes are as follows:

             0   some reason not better specified by another code
             1   the origin server told me that this entity does not exist

   RESPONSE  codes are as follows:

             0   i had it, it's gone now
             1   i had it, i'm keeping it, no reason given.
             2   i didn't have it

   CLR responses have no OP-DATA.

   Clearing a URI without specifying response, entity, or cache headers
   means to clear all entities using that URI.

   7 - Security Considerations

   If the optional AUTH element is not used, it is possible for
   unauthorized third parties to both view and modify a cache using the
   HTCP protocol.

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   8 - Acknowledgements

   Mattias Wingstedt of Idonex brought key insights to the development of
   this protocol.  David Hankins helped clarify this document.

   9 - References

   [RFC1630]
      T. Berners-Lee, ``Universal Resource Identifiers in WWW,'', RFC 1630,
      CERN, June 1994.

   [RFC2068]
      R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, T. Berners-Lee,
      ``Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1,'' RFC 2068, UC Irvine,
      DEC, MIT/LCS, January 1997.

   [RFC2104]
      H. Krawczyk, M. Bellare, R. Canetti, ``HMAC: Keyed-Hashing for
      Message Authentication,'' RFC 2104, IBM and UCSD, February, 1997.

   [RFC2186]
      D. Wessels, K. Claffy, ``Internet Cache Protocol (ICP), version 2,''
      RFC 2186, National Laboratory for Applied Network Research/UCSD,
      September 1997.

   10 - Author's Address

      Paul Vixie
         Internet Software Consortium
         950 Charter Street
         Redwood City, CA 94063
         +1 650 779 7001
         <vixie@isc.org>

      Duane Wessels
         National Lab for Applied Network Research
         USCD, 9500 Gilman Drive
         La Jolla, CA 92093
         +1 303 497 1822
         <wessels@nlanr.net>

   Expires February 2000                                          [Page 15]